Computer Organization

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Computer Organization

1)Enumerate and discuss the different types of registers.
a.User-accessible registers
b.Data registers - memory buffer register, hold data value that is being stored to or retrieved from the memory location currently addressed by the MAR c.Address registers - holds the address of a memory location d.Conditional registers

e.General purpose registers (GPR)
f.Floating point
g.Constant registers
h.Vector registers
i.Special purpose registers

2)Enumerate the basic steps of Instruction Execution cycle. Fetch Cycle
Address which is stored in the program counter is transferred to the memory address registers. The CPU transfer the address stored in MAR to the memory buffer registers via data line. The transfer is coordinated by control unit. To finish the cycle the instruction registers gather the newly fetched instruction.

Execute Cycle
Once the instruction has been loaded into instruction registers and control unit has examined and decode the fetched instruction and required the action needed.

3)Draw and discuss the pyramid of memory hierarchy. Show the relationship of the different levels in terms of different factors considered such as speed, capacity, cost, access time, etc.

4)In the history of computing, what characteristics of computers/machines were defined by RISC design?

All instructions are executed directly by hardware.
Maximize the rate at which instructions are issued.
Use parallelism to execute multiple slow instructions in a short time period. Instructions should be easy to decode.
Only loads and stores should reference memory.
Since memory access time is unpredictable, it makes parallelism difficult. Provide plenty of registers.
Since accessing memory is slow.
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