Computer Information Systems Terminology

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CIS319 Notes
Chapter 1
information system (IS)
A set of interrelated components
that collect, manipulate, and disseminate
data and information and
provide a feedback mechanism to
meet an objective.

data
The raw facts, such as an
employee’s name and number of
hours worked in a week, inventory
part numbers, or sales orders.

information
A collection of facts organized in
such a way that they have additional
value beyond the value of the facts
themselves.

process
A set of logically related tasks
performed to achieve a desired
outcome.

knowledge
The awareness and understanding
of a set of information and the ways
it can be used.

input
The activity of gathering and
capturing raw data.

processing
The activity of converting or transforming
data into useful outputs.

output
The production of useful information,
usually in the form of documents
and reports.

feedback
The output that is used to make
changes to input or processing
activities.

forecasting
The process of predicting future
events to avoid problems.

computer-based information
system (CBIS)
A single set of hardware, software,
databases, telecommunications,
people, and procedures that are
configured to collect, manipulate,
store, and process data into
information.
technology infrastructure
All the hardware, software, databases,
telecommunications, people,
and procedures that are configured
to collect, manipulate, store, and
process data into information.

hardware
The computer equipment used to
perform input, processing, and
output activities.

software
The computer programs that govern
the operation of the computer.

database
An organized collection of facts
and information.

telecommunications
The electronic transmission of
signals for communications;
enables organizations to carry out
their processes and tasks through
effective computer networks.

networks
The connected computers
and computer equipment in
a building, around the country,
or around the world to enable
electronic communications.

Internet
The world’s largest computer
network, actually consisting of
thousands of interconnected
networks, all freely exchanging
information.

intranet
An internal network based on Web
technologies that allows people
within an organization to exchange
information and work on projects.

extranet
A network based on Web technologies
that allows selected outsiders,
such as business partners and
customers, to access authorized
resources of the intranet of a
company

procedures
The strategies, policies, methods,
and rules for using a CBIS.
e-commerce
Any business transaction executed
electronically between parties such
as companies (business-to-business,
B2B), companies and consumers
(business-to-consumer,
B2C), consumers and other consumers
(consumer-to-consumer,
C2C), businesses and the public
sector, and consumers and the
public sector.

mobile commerce
(m-commerce)
Transactions conducted
anywhere, anytime.

transaction
Any business-related exchange
such as payments to employees,
sales to customers, and payments
to suppliers.

transaction processing system
(TPS)
An organized collection of people,
procedures, software, databases,
and devices used to record completed
business transactions.

enterprise resource planning
(ERP) system
A set of integrated programs capable
of managing a company’s vital
business operations for an entire
multisite, global organization.

management information
system (MIS)
An organized collection of people,
procedures, software, databases,
and devices used to provide routine
information to managers and
decision makers.

decision support system (DSS)
An organized collection of people,
procedures, software, databases,
and devices used to support
problem-specific decision making.

artificial intelligence (AI)
A field in which the computer system
takes on the characteristics of
human...
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