Computer Hardware

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COMPUTER HARDWARE Text Book Intermediate Vocational Course - Ist Year

Author: Smt. D Fatima M.C.A (M.Tech C.S) Assistant Professor Dept. of Computer Science, Matrusree Institute of P.G Studies Saidabad-Hyderabad 500059 A.P.

Editor: Mr. M. Venkat Das Associate Professor Dept. of Computer Scxience, College of Engineering Osmania University, Hyderabad.

Year 2005

PREFACE
This book has been written according to syllabus of Intermediate Vocational Course. This subject has been divided into 5 units which in turn are again divided into chapters to present details, suitable illustrations and exercises are also included. Constructive criticism and suggestion are invited from students, teachers and readers of this book for the improvement of the standard of the book. I extend my thanks to Mr.B.Anjan Kumar Hardware Eng MIPGS for his co-operation in bringing out this book

INDEX
1. Hardware Fundamentals Ch 1 Identifying Components & their use Ch 2 Measuring Voltages at different levels 2. Motherboards and their related components Ch 1 Motherboards Ch 2 Ports 3. Bios & CMOS Ch 1 Bios & CMOS Ch 2 Bios features & Configration 4. Operating Systems Ch 1 Installing different Operating Systems like DOS & Windows Ch 2 Troubleshooting through Software 5. Antivirus Software Ch 1 Viruses Ch 2 Intallation of Norton Antivirus Ch 3 Recovery of Sytem through Antivirus Patches PAGE NOS

1-10 11-14 15-25 26-37 38-41 42-52 53-59 60-64 65-71 72-84 85-88

CHAPTER 1

IDENTIFYING COMPONENTS AND THEIR USE

Unit 1.Chapter 1 1 Name : Identifying components and their use 1.1.1 What is a computer? The term computer is used to describe a device made up of electronic and electro mechanical components. The computer itself cannot perform any task and is referred to as hardware. A computer system consists of three elements.

Fig 1.1.1 Components of a Computer System 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. People Hardware : The physical components which you can see, touch and feel in the computer system are called hardware Eg monitor, keyboard, mouse etc. Software : Software is used to describe the instructions that tells the computer how to perform a task. Software is categorized 1) System softwares ( eg . operating systems, compilers, editors etc) 2) Application softwares ( MS-word, excel, accounting packages etc) People : People who operate the computer and also create computer software instructions. 1.1.2 Computer hardware Basic components in a computer system are central processing unit (CPU), memory, the input device and output device.

2 ComputerHardware Computer systems – Micros, Minis and Mainframes. Micro computer : Micro computer is also called as personal computer or PC. It has a processor based on a single silicon chip. Personal computers come in three different physical sizes, pocket pc’s, lap pc’s and desktop pc’s. Pocket pc’s and lap pc’s belong to portable category. Microcomputer is used in small businesses. Ex : IBM compatible or IBM clone and Apple Macintosh systems. Multiuser microcomputers. Until recently microcomputers were personal computers for individual use only. But now days several microcomputers can be networked together for simultaneous used by several people. Mini computers: Mini computer is simply a small mainframe computer. It is a reduced version of mainframe. Attached printers are not so fast. So it has less storage capacity less processing speed of that of mainframe computers. They are usually used by small businesses. For example research groups, engineering firms, colleges etc. use mini computers. Mainframe computers: A mainframe computer is a large expensive machine whose processing speed is very high and has large amount of secondary storage and fast printers. A large mainframe computer may be used to meet the data processing requirements of the entire organization. Examples: airline booking systems, Railway booking systems , weather forecast etc. 1.1.3 System types We can classify systems into the following...
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