Computer Effects on the Academic Performance of Students - Review of Related Literature

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“Effects of computer usage to the academic performance of students”

Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The scope of Computer effects derives a wide scope of related literature that is worth mentioning.

In this regard, this literature review concerning the effects of computer usage to the academic performance of students, will address the following areas relevant to this study: History of the Computer; Importance of Computers, Negative Effects of Gaming; Computer Crime; Computer Use recommendations; and conclusion.

HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER

Many people do not know how, or even when computers were first made. Even before the first electronic computers were made, many people believe that computers started with the abacus, a simple counting device. The abacus is believed to have been built in Babylon in the fourth century B.C. The "First Generation" of computers started in the very late 1930's. These computers were grotesquely slow, colossal in size, created much heat, used hundreds of kilowatts of power, and were about as reliable as a used up match (www.pbs.org). As time went on, these computers evolved from using vacuum tubes to transistors. Transistors mark the beginning of the "Second Generation" of computers in 1947. Unfortunately, the 2nd Generation did not advance as much as most people hoped, but eventually, the "Third Generation" was brought about by the invention of integrated circuits in 1958. Integrated circuits replaced transistors, and many computer languages came out in this time. Many more computer companies were born during this time, and eventually this led to personal computers for everyday use. Microprocessors introduced the beginning of the "Fourth Generation" and a time where computers were in almost every house.

IMPORTANCE OF COMPUTERS

In the last decade the role of the computer has changed radically as the development of technology found new possibilities of using these 'intelligent' machines. Since their invention in the 70' computers have improved their performance by hundreds of times, to satisfy higher calculation power, bigger data storage, faster flood of information, a better hardware for more challenging software, better quality and speed, smaller space, and cheaper.

Nowadays starting with doing operations and calculating the computer has become a multifunctional and a very complex machine, capable of doing billions of operations per second.

The internet improved our lives? No... It has REDEFINED our lifestyles and has created a permanent virtual world. We are living in the Computer age. Since it first appeared (Zuse Z3 in 1941) the word "Computer" has been updated and further updated up to a point we can't describe.

The ability to operate different kinds of hardware and software has opened avenues in the workplace to many and their productiveness is unchallenged.

NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF GAMING

It is known that we are living in technological era. The computers became irreplaceable tool in everyday life of almost each person. The adult users generally use it for business purposes while youngsters for computer games. Computers became the part of our life and very important component in many spheres of modern life. So it is somehow influences on people. One of the spheres of the life is leisure. And nowadays majority of young people spend their leisure playing computer games, surfing through the internet. Computer games have become one of the favorite time-spending of young people all ages, and even some adults. With permanent development of computer technology the quantity of people using computer either for working purposes or entertainment purposes is increasing speedily. One of the reasons of acquiring computers and computer games by busy parents for their children is providing playing leisure for them. But some parents don’t realize that computer games not only develop child’s mind, logic (what is positive influence) but has negative affects. Computer games...
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