Computer Architecture Notes

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Chapter 1: Fundamental of Computer Design

Rung-Bin Lin

1-1

Definition
• Computer Architecture deals with Structure and behaviour of computer including the information formats, the instruction sets and various techniques used for memory addressing. • Can be defined as  functional operation of individual hardware units, the flow of information between them and conrol of these functions coherently and smoothly

Chapter 1: Fundamental of Computer Design

Rung-Bin Lin

1-2

Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Computer Design
• Introduction
– Performance Improvement due to
(1). Advances in the technology (2). Innovation in computer design

– 1945-1970: (1) and (2) made a major contribution to performance improvement – 1970 ~ : 25% to 30% per year performance improvement for the mainframes and minicomputers. – 1975~ : 35% per year performance improvement for microprocessors simply due to (1).

Chapter 1: Fundamental of Computer Design

Rung-Bin Lin

1-3

Performance Growth for Micro-processors

Chapter 1: Fundamental of Computer Design

Rung-Bin Lin

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Changes in the Marketplaces Made a Successful Architecture
• The virtual elimination of assembly language reduced the need for object code compatibility • The creation of standardized, vendor-independent operating system, such as Unix and Linux, lowered the cost and risk • Consequence of the changes – Enable the development of RISCs to focus on

• Exploitation of instruction level parallelism • Use of caches

– Lead to 50% increase in performance per year

Chapter 1: Fundamental of Computer Design

Rung-Bin Lin

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The Effect of the Growth rate in Computer Performance
• Significantly enhanced the capability available to computer users • Lead to the dominance of microprocessor-based computers across the entire range of computer design. – Workstations and PCs have emerged as major products. – Servers replace minicomputers. – Multiprocessors replace mainframe computers and super computers. • The advance of IC technology – Emergence of RISC – Renewal of CISC such as x86 (IA32) microprocessors.

Chapter 1: Fundamental of Computer Design

Rung-Bin Lin

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CISC
• • • • • • • Attempts to provide a single m/c instruction for each statement written in high level language. Eg.VAX of DEC A large no.of.instruction set. (100 – 250 instructions) Relatively few registers.(8 for 386, 6 for VAX) Instructions that perform specialized tasks are used frequently. Shared cache for data and instruction. A large variety of addressing modes typically from 5 to 20

Chapter 1: Fundamental of Computer Design

Rung-Bin Lin

1-7

CISC
• • • • • Floating point instructions are available within the processor Instruction formats are of variable length and hence are difficult to decode Instruction manipulate operands in memory Micro-programmed control Difficult to implement pipelining

Chapter 1: Fundamental of Computer Design

Rung-Bin Lin

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RISC
• Architecture attempts to reduce execution time by simplifying instruction set of the computer. • (Eg.Alpha processor and 68000 series of Motorola) • Few instructions.(reg-reg, load and store instructions for memory access. • Large no.of. Registers in CPU.(32 for MIPS • Limited no.of.instructions, and all of them are commonly used. • Separate cache for data and instructions • Relatively few addressing modes.

Chapter 1: Fundamental of Computer Design

Rung-Bin Lin

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RISC
• Floating point insturctions are done with coprocessor or software • Fixed length instruction format and can be easily decoded and executed in a single cycle • Memory access is limited to load and store instructions and all operations are done within CPU registers • Hardware control • Pipelining is relatively easy

Chapter 1: Fundamental of Computer Design

Rung-Bin Lin

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The Changing Face of Computing
1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s Large mainframes
» Business data processing and...
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