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Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha

Ref Page

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers

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Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha

Learning Objectives
Learning
In this chapter you will learn about:
§ Computer
§ Data processing
§ Characteristic features of computers
§ Computers’ evolution to their present form
§ Computer generations
§ Characteristic features of each computer generation

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers

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Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha

Computer
§ The word computer comes from the word “compute”,
which means, “to calculate”
§ Thereby, a computer is an electronic device that can
perform arithmetic operations at high speed
§ A computer is also called a data processor because it can store, process, and retrieve data whenever desired

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers

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Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha

Data Processing
Data
The activity of processing data using a computer is called
data processing
Data
Capture Data
Manipulate Data
Output Results
Information
Data is raw material used as input and information is
processed data obtained as output of data processing

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers

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Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha

Characteristics of Computers
1) Automatic: Given a job, computer can work on it
automatically without human interventions
2) Speed: Computer can perform data processing jobs
very fast, usually measured in microseconds (10-6),
nanoseconds (10-9), and picoseconds (10-12)
3) Accuracy: Accuracy of a computer is consistently high
and the degree of its accuracy depends upon its design.
Computer errors caused due to incorrect input data or
unreliable programs are often referred to as GarbageIn-Garbage-Out (GIGO) (Continued on next slide)

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers

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Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha

Characteristics of Computers
(Continued from previous slide..)

4) Diligence: Computer is free from monotony, tiredness,
and lack of concentration. It can continuously work for
hours without creating any error and without grumbling
5) Versatility: Computer is capable of performing almost
any task, if the task can be reduced to a finite series of
logical steps
6) Power of Remembering: Computer can store and
recall any amount of information because of its
secondary storage capability. It forgets or looses certain
information only when it is asked to do so
(Continued on next slide)

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers

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Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha

Characteristics of Computers
(Continued from previous slide..)

7) No I.Q.: A computer does only what it is programmed
to do. It cannot take its own decision in this regard
8) No Feelings: Computers are devoid of emotions. Their
judgement is based on the instructions given to them in
the form of programs that are written by us (human
beings)

(Continued on next slide)

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers

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Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha

Evolution of Computers
Evolution
§ Blaise Pascal invented the first mechanical adding
machine in 1642
§ Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz invented the first
calculator for multiplication in 1671
§ Keyboard machines...
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