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Cause / Effect Essay
Many phenomena, events, situations and trends can be better understood by describing their causes and effects. The cause and effect essay explains what happens and why it happens.

Cause / Effect Essay Specific Vocabulary

Obesity is a cause of / a reason for premature death.

Media coverage affects / influences voting patterns. Media coverage leads to / gives rise to / brings about changes in voting patterns. Voting patterns are affected / are influenced by media coverage.

Stress causes / produces / results in low exam scores. Low exam scores are caused by / are produced by / result from stress. Low exam scores are a consequence of / are a result of / are due to / the effect of stress.

When / If there is constant economic instability, currency crashes occur. As a result of / As a consequence of constant economic instability, currency crashes occur. There is constant economic instability. As a result, / As a consequence, / Consequently, / Thus, / Therefore, / Hence, / For this reason, currency crashes occur.

Because / Since / As some areas face extreme weather conditions, there is damage to property. Owing to / On account of / Because of / Due to the fact that some areas face extreme weather conditions, there is damage to property. Owing to / On account of / Because of / Due to extreme weather conditions, there is damage to property.

Owing to / On account of / Because of / Due to extreme weather conditions, damage to property occurs.

Cause / Effect Essay Structure
While writing a cause / effect essay, the order of the main points given in the thesis statement is followed in body paragraphs. The following example is an outline for a cause essay about the reasons for cities becoming overcrowded. Thesis statement: There are two main reasons why these and other cities are becoming so crowded; one economic, the other socio-cultural. 1st body: economic reasons 1. cities are engines of development.

2nd body: socio-cultural reasons 1. education 2. urbanization

The following example is an outline for an effect essay about the effects of the computer on life. Thesis statement: The two main areas in which computers have brought about a profound change in our lives are in the economic field and in the field of communications. 1st body: economic effects 1. computers in business 2. computers and national economies 2nd body: effects on communication 1. e-mail 2. globalization

The sample shows essay organization

Why are Cities Becoming Overcrowded?
General Statements

The fact that the world’s cities are getting more and more crowded is well-known. Cities such as Tokyo, Sao Paolo, Bombay and Shanghai are now considered ‘mega-cities’, because of their enormous size and huge populations. There are two main reasons why these and other cities are becoming so crowded; one economic, the other socio-cultural. First, the primary cause of cities becoming so crowded is economic. As a country develops, its cities become the engines of development, thus jobs are available in these areas. Frankfurt, Istanbul, Bombay and Sao Paolo are all the economic centres of their countries. For example, Tokyo was the motor for Japan’s rapid economic development in the 1960’s and 70’s; as a result, its population increased rapidly. People moved to Tokyo because they could find employment and establish economic security for themselves and their families there. Second, another factor in the huge increase in urban populations is the socio-cultural factor. Thousands of people migrate to the cities not only for jobs but also for educational and personal reasons. The better universities are always located in big cities and this attracts thousands of students every year, and these students stay on and work in the city after they graduate. Moreover, young people will move to the city as the villages and rural areas are more custom and tradition oriented. Therefore, young people believe this is an obstacle to their...
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