Compound Words

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Linguistic Inquiry Monographs Samuel Jay Keyser, general editor 1.

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Word Formation in Generative Grammar, Mark Aronoff X Syntax: A Study of Phrase Structure, Ray Jackendoff Recent Trans ormational Studies in European Languages, Samuel Jay Keyser, f editor Studies in Abstract Phonology, Edmund Gussmann An Encyclopedia of A UX: A Study in Cross-Linguistic Equivalence, Susan Steele Some Concepts and Consequences of the Theory of Government and Binding, Noam Chomsky The Syntax of Wordl-, Elisabeth Selkirk Syllable Structure and Stress in Spanish: A Nonlinear Analysis, James W. Harris CV Phonology: A Generative Theory of the Syllable, George N. Clements and Samuel Jay Keyser On the Nature of Grammatical Relations, Alec Marantz A Grammar of Anaphora, Joseph Aoun Logical Form: Its Structure and Derivation, Robert May Barriers, Noam Chomsky On the Definition of Word, Anna-Maria Di Sciullo and Edwin Williams Japanese Tone Structure, Janet Pierrehumbert and Mary Beckman Relativized Minimality, Luigi Rizzi Types of A-Dependencies, Guglielmo Cinque Argument Structure, Jane Grimshaw Locality: A Theory and Some of Its Empirical Consequences, Maria Rita Manzini Indejinites, Molly Diesing Syntax of Scope, Joseph Aoun and Yen-hui Audrey Li Morphology by Itself: Stems and Inflectional Classes, Mark Aronoff Thematic Structure in Syntax, Edwin Williams Indices and Identity, Robert Fiengo and Robert May The Antisymmetry of Syntax, Richard S. Kayne Unaccusativity: At the Syntax-Lexical Semantics Inter ace, Beth Levin and f Malka Rappaport Hovav Lexico-Logical Form: A Radically Minimalist Theory, Michael Brody The Architecture of the Language Faculty, Ray Jackendoff

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The Architecture of the Language Faculty

Ray lackendoff

The MIT Press Cam bridge, Massachusetts London, England

© 1 997 Massachusetts Institute of Technology All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical means (including photocopying, recording, or infor­ mation storage and retrieval) without permission in writing from the publisher. This book was set in Times Roman by Asco Trade Typesetting Ltd., Hong Kong Printed and bound in the United States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Jackendoff, Ray S. The architecture of the language faculty I Ray Jackendoff. p. cm. - (Linguistic inquiry monographs; 28) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-262- 1 0059-2. - ISBN 0-262-60025-0 (pbk.) I. Grammar, Comparative and general. 2. Thought and thinking. I. Title. 11. Series. PI 5 1 .J25 1 996 41 5-dc20

96-25903 CIP


Series Foreword Preface xiii


Chapter 1


Questions, Goals, Assumptions

l .l
1.1.1 1.1.2

Universal Grammar


The Mentalist Stance 2 The Notion 0/ Mental Grammar 3 1.1.3 Leamability and Universal Grammar 4 6 1.1.4 Innateness 1.1.5 Relation o/ Grammar to Processing 7 1.1.6 Relation o/ Grammar to Brain 8 1.1.7 Evolutionary Issues 10 1.2 11

Necessities and Assumptions


Syntactocentrism and Perfection 15

Chapter 2 Modularity Interfaces; Representational 21 2.1

The "Articulatory-Perceptual" Interfaces 21
The Phonology-Syntax




Contents 2.3 The "Conceptual-Intentional" 31 Interface 2.4 Embedding Mismatches between Syntactic Structure and Conceptual 36 Structure 2.5 The Tripartite Parallel Architecture 38 2.6 Representational Modularity 41

Chapter 3 More

the Syntax-Semantics

3.1 3.2
3.2.1 3.2.2

Enriched Composition Aspectual Coercions

47 51 53



51 Verbal Coercions Mass-Count Coercions

3.3 Reference Transfer 54 Functions

A ctors
3.3.2 3.3.3

Pictures, Statues, and 56 Cars and Other Vehicles H am Sandwiches 57


3.4 Argument Structure Alternations 58

In terpolated Function Specified by General Principle 58...
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