Composition of President

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  • Topic: Philippines, Provinces of the Philippines, Luzon
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The Underlying Causes and Failures of the Philippine Revolts Against Spanish Rule During the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, several revolts against Spain were undertaken for various reasons. However, it can be agreed upon that the common underlying cause of these revolts were the generally repressive policies of the Spanish colonial government against the native Filipinos. Many of these revolts though have failed. The specific underlying causes of these revolts have distinct circumstances that need to be studied in Philippines History. We now take a look on how these revolts prospered from its main cause and failure to subjugate the Spanish rule . In 1585, the popular revolt of Pampanga was undertaken due to abuses felt by the natives inflicted by the encomenderos. The native Kapampangan leaders failed to implement the revolt because a Filipina married to a Spanish soldier reported the plot to Spanish authorities. For their actions, the leaders of the revolt were ordered executed. The revolt against the tribute in 1589 occurred in the present day provinces of Cagayan, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur in 1589. The natives, which included the Ilocanos, Ibanags and others, rose in revolt over alleged abuses by tax collectors, such as the collection of unjust taxes. Governor-General Santiago de Vera sent Spanish troops to pacify the rebels. They were eventually granted pardon, along with the overhaul of the Philippine tax system. From 1649 to 1950, another popular revolt which was known as the Sumuroy Revolt came from the present town now of town of Palapag in Northern Samar, Juan Ponce Sumuroy, a Waray, and some of his followers rose in arms on June 1, 1649 over the polo system being undertaken in Samar. The government in Manila directed that all natives subject to the polo are not to be sent to places distant from their hometowns to do their polo. However, under orders of the various town alcaldes, or mayors, Samarnons were being sent to the shipyards of Cavite to do their polo, which sparked the revolt. The local parish priest of Palapag was murdered and the revolt eventually spread to Mindanao, Bicol and the rest of the Visayas, especially in places such as Cebu, Masbate, Camiguin, Zamboanga, Albay, Camarines and parts of northern Mindanao, such as Surigao. A free government was also established in the mountains of Samar.The defeat, capture and execution of Sumuroy in June 1650 led to the end of the revolt.

The unique revolt that happened in 1744 was the Dogohoy revolt which was completely related to matters of religious customs. This was undertaken by Francisco Dagohoy. After a duel in which Dagohoy's brother died, the local parish priest refused to give his brother a proper Christian burial, since dueling is a mortal sin. The refusal of the priest to give his brother a proper Christian burial eventually led to the longest revolt ever held in Philippine history: 85 years. It also led to the establishment of a free Boholano government. Twenty governors-general, from Juan Arrechederra to Manuel Ricafort Palacín y Ararca, failed to stop the revolt. Ricafort himself sent a force of 2,200 troops to Bohol, which was defeated by Dagohoy's followers. Another attack, also sent by Ricafort in 1828 and 1829, failed as well.Dagohoy died two years before the revolt ended, though, which led to the end of the revolt in 1829. Some 19,000 survivors were granted pardon and were eventually allowed to live in new Boholano villages: namely, the present-day towns of Balilihan, Batuan, Bilar (Vilar), Catigbian and Sevilla (Cabulao). After a year another revolt was undertaken because agrarian problems. The Filipino Landowners rose in arms over the land-grabbing of Spanish friars, with native landowners demanding that Spanish priests return their lands on the basis of ancestral domain. The refusal of the Spanish priests resulted in much rioting, resulting in massive looting of convents and...
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