COMPONENTS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
Even though reciprocating internal combustion engines look quite sim¬ple, they are highly complex machines. There are hundreds of compo¬nents which have to perform their functions satisfactorily to produce out¬put power. The main components of the IC engine and their functions are described below.
Cylinder Block: The cylinder block is the main supporting structure for the various components. The cylinder of a multi-cylinder engine is cast as a single unit, called cylinder block. The cylinder head is mounted on the cylinder block. The cylinder head and cylinder block are provided with water jackets in the case of water cooling or with cooling fins in the case of air cooling. Cylinder head gasket is incorporated between the cylinder block and cylinder head. The cylinder head is held tight to the cylinder block by number of bolts or studs. The bottom portion of the cylinder block is called crankcase. A cover called crankcase which becomes a sump for lubricating oil is fastened to the bottom of the crankcase. The inner surface of the cylinder block which is machined and finished accurately to cylindrical shape is called bore or face. •
Cylinder: As the name implies it is a cylindrical vessel or space in which the piston makes a reciprocating motion. The varying volume created in the cylinder during the operation of the engine is filled with the working fluid and subjected to different thermodynamic processes. The cylinder is supported in the cylinder block. •
Piston: It is a cylindrical component fitted into the cylinder forming the moving boundary of the combustion system. It fits perfectly (snugly) into the cylinder providing a gas-tight space with the piston rings and the lubricant. It forms the first link in transmitting the gas forces to the output shaft. •
Combustion Chamber: The space enclosed in the upper part of the cylinder, by the cylinder head and the piston top during the combustion process, is called...
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