Components of Animal Feed

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Chapter 9 (Nutrients and Feedstuffs)

Nutrient – component of feed that aids in the support of life Feed – any material, after ingestion by the animal, that is capable of being digested, absorbed and utilized * Not all feed is utilized

Lignin – indigestible
* Lignin is what the outer wall of a plant cell
* The older the plant is the more lignin it has
Components of animal feed
* Water – (#1 most important nutrient)
* Dry matter
* Inorganic matter (minerals)
* Organic matter
* Carbohydrates
* Lipids
* Protein
* Vitamins
* Hay – 10% water & 90% dry matter
Water:
* Functions of water
* Transportation of nutrients and metabolic waste
* Chemical reactions
* Regulation of body temperature
Sources of Water
* Drinking water
* Water in feed
* Metabolic water – Recycling water

Factors that affect water intake
* Temperature
* Feed type
* Pasture
* Water type (quality)
* Stage of Production (pregnant, foal, etc…)
Protein
* Contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
* Only 1 with nitrogen
* Composed of amino acids
* Protein need declines with age
* Must be supplied in non-ruminant diets
Lipids
* Fats that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
* Has glycerol backbone with one, two, or three fatty acids attached by an ester linkage * Monoglyceride
* Diglyceride
* Triglyceride
* Fatty Acids (range in length from 2- 24 carbons)
* Unsaturated
* Saturated (no double bonds between carbons)
* Solid at room temperature
* Fat has higher energy density than other nutrients
* Gross energy = (kcal/g)
Volatile fatty Acids
* Three fatty acids are the end product of carbohydrate digestion in the ruminant * Basically gases
* Energy source for ruminants
* 3 types:
* Acetic
* Propionic
* Butyric
Carbohydrates
* Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
* Formed by photosynthesis in plants

Complex Carbohydrates
* Cellulose
* Lignin
Vitamins
* Classification = fat-soluble vitamins
* A
* E
* D
* K
* Water soluble
* B
* 9 vitamins in group B
* C
Vitamin A
* Found in leafy forages
* Night blindness associated with deficiency
* Decreases sperm production
Vitamin D
* Provided by sunlight
* Enhance intestinal absorption, mobilization, and retention Vitamin E
* Associated with Selenium
Vitamin K
* Needed for blood clotting
Thiamin
* Young Headers with thiamin shortage

Macro – minerals:
* Calcium
* Potassium
* Phosphorous
* Magnesium
* Sodium
* Sulfur
* Chlorine
Minerals:
Salt
* Need .25 to .5 oz/day
Calcium and Phosphorous
* Normal ratio (2:1) (ca:P)
Magnesium
* When low in Magnesium blood is chocolate Brown
* Grass Tetany most common problem
* Spring grass that is low in Magnesium and High K+ heavily fertilized with Nitrogen causes problems Potassium
* Osmotic pressure
* Low K = listlessness and stiffness
* Most problems seen in feedlot areas
Sulfur
* Thought to be an insect resistance by Old-farts
* Rarely seen as deficiency because its cheap to put in feed Iodine
* Common sign of deficiency is goiter
* Using iodized salt generally eliminates problem

Copper
* Copper terrible for sheep and goats
* If deficient in copper, dark hair will turn to red
* Ex: angus cattle
* Have to singe red hair to make black and ready to sell Iron
* Baby animals need iron
* Especially piglets
* Defficiency causes anemia
Selenium
* Only mineral regulated by the USDA
* Usually paired with vitamin E
* Toxic if over 3PPM
* Sore feet, sloughed hooves
* Excessive drooling, anorexia

Feedstuffs

Roughages
* Low in energy
* Pasture,...
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