The term agriculture is derived from the Latin words “Ager” and “Cultura”. Ager means field while cultura is cultivation. Literally, that means field cultivation, but the definition of agriculture is more than the root words. Therefore, agriculture can be defined as the art and science of cultivating the soil, producing livestock, preparing livestock feeds, processing crops and livestock products for man and the process of selling Agriculture is art, science, and industry of managing the growth of plants and animals for human use. In a broad sense agriculture includes cultivation of the soil, growing and harvesting crops, breeding and raising livestock, dairying, and forestry. Modern agriculture depends heavily on engineering and technology and on the biological and physical sciences. Irrigation, drainage, conservation, and sanitary engineering—each of which is important in successful farming—are some of the fields requiring the specialized knowledge of agricultural engineers. Agricultural chemistry deals with other vital farming concerns, such as the application of fertilizer, insecticides, and fungicides, soil makeup, analysis of agricultural products, and nutritional needs of farm animals. Plant breeding and genetics contribute immeasurably to farm productivity. Genetics has also made a science of livestock breeding. Hydroponics, a method of soilless gardening in which plants are grown in chemical nutrient solutions, may help meet the need for greater food production as the world’s population increases. The packing, processing, and marketing of agricultural products are closely related activities also influenced by science. Methods of quick-freezing and dehydration have increased the markets for farm products Mechanization, the outstanding characteristic of late 19th- and 20th-century agriculture, has eased much of the backbreaking toil of the farmer. More significantly, mechanization has enormously increased farm efficiency and productivity. Animals including horses, oxen, and dogs, however, are still used to cultivate fields, harvest crops, and transport farm products to markets in many parts of the world. Airplanes and helicopters are employed in agriculture for seeding, spraying operations for insect and disease control, transporting perishable products, and fighting forest fires. Increasingly satellites are being used to monitor crop yields. Radio and television disseminate vital weather reports and other information such as market reports that concern farmers. Computers have become an essential tool for farm management.
Cereals are grasses, a member of the monocot of family Poaceae also known as Gramineae. The crop plants that fall under are cultivated for edible components of their grains. Grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy world wide than other types of crop.
The word cereal is derived from ceres, the name of the Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture. Cereals are staple food crops that complete their life cycle once they have grown their seeds.
Below are examples of common cereal:
2.Wild RiceZizania aquatica
3.Maize Zea mays
6.Common milletPanicum miliaceum
7.Little milletPanicum sumatrense
8.Pearl milletPennisetum glaucum
9.Brown top milletPanicum ramosum
10.Common wheatTriticum aestivum
11.Tartary buck wheatFagopyrum tataricum
12.Common buck wheatFagopyrum esculentum
13.Wild buck wheatFagopyrum convolvulus