Competitive Intelligence

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

0. INTRODUCTION
Knowledge is an intangible resource that exists within the mind of the individual (Sveiby 1997). Everyone in this world is hunger for knowledge since they were born. Baby also learn new thing and acquire knowledge from the day one of their life. Knowledge keeps on growing and growing from time to time throughout the life phases. Experience is an essence that always contributes to the existence and development of new knowledge in every level of life phases. As early age of 6 years old children were sent to school to obtain knowledge. Malaysian education curriculum would be one of the best examples that is emphasizing it citizen to acquire knowledge. Higher learning institutions in Malaysia evolve rapidly, many privates college were transformed and upgraded into university level. Thus many Malaysian citizens have equal opportunities to further their study at higher level of education. In 2007 the total number of student enrollment in IPTA and IPTS is about 140,699 (Sources from Kementerian Pendidikan Tinggi, Malaysia).

A big number of higher learning institutions in Malaysia producing a greater number of human capitals with variety tacit knowledge in various fields attached to various industries in this country. It is a waste if there is no effort taken to preserve the tacit knowledge of the expertise in every organization. Capturing tacit knowledge of expertise in every organization is a must and it is also a best practice that should be practiced to prevent knowledge from knowledge walkout phenomenon.

Therefore, some of the Multinational Company around the world adopts knowledge management as management best practice in the organization because tacit knowledge at the organization is the most valuable asset that should be fully utilized to sustain it competitive advantages. Knowledge management is a process where organizations have formulated ways in the attempt to recognize and archive knowledge assets within the organization that are derived from employees of various departments or faculties and in some cases, even from other organizations that share the similar area of interests or specialization (Joseph, 2001).

Knowledge sharing is one of important component of knowledge management. Knowledge sharing is the voluntary dissemination of acquired skills and experience to the rest of organization (Davenport, 1997, Ipe 2003). According to Yang (2007) knowledge sharing is defined as a transfer process where individual competencies are developed through sharing and learning from others. Company that was identified to start knowledge management through knowledge sharing was Buckman Laboratory. To implement knowledge sharing initiative Buckman set up a Knowledge Transfer Department and appointed 34 years old in Ph.D in organic chemistry to run it. Within thirty days, Buckman Labs put its entire worldwide network up to CompuServe, the public online service. CompuServe offered email access to public networks as well as private bulletin boards for internal use. Every associate was issued a laptop and a phone number to call (Source from Applied Knowledge Group Inc).

Even though, the knowledge sharing was proven as best practice that leads to the successful of individual and organization. Yang (2007) cited Petrash, 1996; Gupta and Govindarajan, 2000; Olievera, 2000 in his literature points out that a number of studies indicate practicing knowledge sharing (KS) results in improved organizational effectiveness .Law and Ngai (2008) found that knowledge sharing and learning behaviours are positively associated with business process improvement, and product and service offerings. Appropriate transfer of individual knowledge would result in knowledge appreciation, and consequently, enhances the outcomes of organizational learning and thereby organizational effectiveness (Yang, 2007).

Although people realize about the advantages of sharing knowledge among them...
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