Competition

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  • Topic: Interspecific competition, Species, Wheat
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  • Published : December 12, 2012
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Audrey Umwali
Ecology Lab Report 10
Section 7649
Competition Data
November 28, 2012

INTRODUCTION
Competition, whether it is for food, water, shelter or a mate occurs between any living organisms in a mutual habitat. They are likely to be in close proximity and this interaction could either be harmful or helpful to each organism. When the interaction is beneficial, it is considered to be mutualism, either being obligate or facultative. However, interactions between different species may take different forms, such as commensalism, parasitism, amensalism etc. Competition often results in reduced growth and/or lower seed production of one or both individuals or species when compared to the yield of either when grown alone. There are two types of competition; intraspecific and interspecific competition. Intraspecific competition refers to competition within a specific species and intraspecific competition is competition between different species. Interspecific competition between different species may not be observed, if the resource requirements of the species are different. Interspecific competing species may also co-exist because no one species is competitive enough to drive out the other species. When one type of specie is a much better competitor compared to the other species, it is possible for competitive exclusion to occur, eliminating the other species from the community. Individuals of the same species may avoid competition by partitioning the resources (guild). Small species that mature rapidly are suitable for intraspecific and interspecific competition experiments. This laboratory exercise focuses both types on interactions using wheat and mustard seeds. Our goal was to observe intraspecific competition in mustard and in wheat by varying the density of plants and observing plant growth. We will also examine interspecific competition between mustard (Brassica) and wheat (Triticum) plants by planting a variety of mixtures of the two species together in the same pot. Variation in plant density can have a profound effect on yield per plant. This experiment gives us the opportunity to gain precision and statistically meaning predications. MATERIALS & METHODS

The seeds were planted using planting pots and they were evenly spaced in order to avoid crowding. The seeds were then covered with a thin layer of soil. Each pot was numbered with respect to the number and type of seeds it contains. The pots were placed in the green house garden and watered routinely. Extra fertilizers were not added to the planting pots. The plants were allowed to grow for about 5-8 weeks. At around the eighth week, the plants were harvested and dried in an oven at 70 C0 for 24 hours. Then, they were weighed and the biomass of each species was recorded. RESULTS

Tables 8.2, 8.3, 8.4 and 8.5 depicts the master summary tables including # of seeds of each specie planted, # of plants harvested, total mustard biomass, standardized per plant biomass and the averaged on the standardized biomass. The figures accounts for the number of seeds planted versus the average standard per plant biomass. The R² values for figures 8.2, 8.3, 8.4 and 8.5 were 0.9621, 0.843, 0.9649 and 0.7267 respectively. The baseline per plant biomass for mustard was determined to be 0.16525 and 0.175 for wheat. Table 8.2 Master Summary Table: Effect of Intraspecific Competition on Mustard Pot #| # Mustard Seeds Planted| # Mustard Plants| Total Mustard Biomass (g)| Per Plant Biomass for Mustard (g)| Standardized Per Plant Biomass for Mustard | Average of Treatment Standardized Per Plant Biomass for Mustard| | | Harvested| | | (%)| (%)|

1| 1| 1| 0.06| 0.06|  Notapplicable |  100  |
2| 1| 1| 0.155| 0.155| | |
3| 1| 1| 0.325| 0.325| | |
4| 1| 1| 0.121| 0.121| | |
5| 2| 1| 0.175| 0.175| 105.9001513| 81.896117|
6| 2| 2| 0.342| 0.171| 103.4795764| |
7| 2| 2| 0.12| 0.06|...
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