There are various definitions given for the term competency. Combining the basic ideas embedded in all definitions, competency can be defined as:
“ A combination of knowledge, skills, attitude and personality of an individual as applied to a role or job in the context of the present and future environment, that accounts for sustained success within the framework of Organizational Values.”
Sometimes competencies are also defined as “ cluster of successful behaviors.”
FIVE TYPES OF COMPETENCY CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Motives: the things a person consistently thinks about or wants that cause action. Motives “ drive, direct, and select” behavior toward certain actions or goals and away from others. E.g. Achievement-motivated people consistently set challenging goals for themselves and use feedback to do better.
2. Traits: physical characteristics and consistent response to situation or information. E.g. reaction time and good eyesight are physical trait competencies of combat pilots.
3. Self-concept: A person’s attitude, values, or self-image. E.g. Self-confidence, a person’s belief that he can be effective in any situation is a part of that person’s concept of self.
4. Knowledge: Information a person has in specific content areas E.g. A surgeon’s knowledge of nerves and muscles in the human body.
Skill: The ability to perform a certain physical or mental task. E.g. A dentist’s physical skill to fill a tooth without damaging the nerve.
The type or level of a competency has practical implications for human resource planning. Knowledge and skills tend to be visible and relatively surface, characteristics of people. But attitude, trait and motive competencies are more hidden “deeper” and central to personality. Surface knowledge and skills are relatively easy to develop. But core motive and trait competencies are at the base of the personality iceberg and are more difficult to assess and develop as shown in the figure on the next page:
WHAT IS A COMPETENCY MODEL?
A competency model is a set of success factors (competencies) that include the key behaviors required for excellent performance in a particular role. Excellent performers on the job demonstrate these behaviors much more consistently than average or poor performers.
A Competency model provides a “road map” for the range of behaviors that produce excellent performance.
BENEFITS OF COMPETENCY MODELS
Competency models have strategic value as performance improvement vehicles. Benefits include... •They make explicit the clusters of knowledge, skills, and personal attributes that lead to high performance in specific jobs and roles. This information can be transmitted to employees.
•They embody the core values of a business, aiding in the communication of these values throughout the organization and helping to shape a business culture and identity worldwide.
•Competency models are behavior-based performance standards against which people and units can be measured. They provide a behavioral vision for the kinds of performance necessary to successfully implement worldwide business strategies
NEED FOR A COMPETENCY MODEL
Organizations are using competencies in virtually every human resource domain.
STAFFING ASSESSMENT PERFORMANCE DEVELOPMENT
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT CAREER MANAGEMENT
Competencies are used as the “key criteria” for implementing each application. Therefore, competencies can be used as a tool to produce results in each of the above areas. All the Integrated Human Resource Practices can be based on competencies.
WHAT IS COMPETENCY MAPPING?
Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for an organization and/or a job and incorporating those competencies throughout the various processes (i.e. job evaluation, training, recruitment) of the organization.
BUILDING COMPETENCY BASED PEOPLE PROCESSES