Competency Mapping

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CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Ongoing and unrelenting economic, social and technological changes have spurred the need for flexible, skilled workers who can help their organizations succeed and sustain a competitive advantage. To be relevant within organizations and indispensable to clients and customers alike, workplace learning and performance professionals must continually reassess their competencies, update their skills and have the courage to make necessary changes. Businesses and managing business has and will always be complex. There is no denying the need to perform through a combination of utilizing predictive or forecasting tools, techniques and methods, yet without trivializing the need to sustain and drive a motivated high performing workforce. The company’s needed to sustain in a competitive environment, gave rise to the need to understand and learn to establish the context of competency mapping. Competency mapping is the process of identification of the competencies required to perform successfully a given job or role or a set of tasks at a given point of time. It generally examines two areas: emotional intelligence or emotional quotient (EQ), and strengths of the individual in areas like team structure, leadership, and decision-making. It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituent tasks or activities and identifying the competencies (technical, managerial, behavioral, conceptual knowledge, an attitudes, skills, etc.) needed to perform the same successfully.

1.1.1 Definition
A combination of knowledge, skills, attitude and personality of an individual as applied to a role or job in the context of the present and future environment that accounts for sustained success within the framework of Organizational Values.

Competencies include the collection of success factors necessary for achieving important results in a specific job or work role in a particular organization. Success factors are combinations of knowledge, skills, and attributes (more historically called “KSA’s”) that are described in terms of specific behaviors, and are demonstrated by superior performers in those jobs or work roles. Attributes include: personal characteristics, traits, motives, values or ways of thinking that impact an individual’s behavior.

1.1.2 History
A team of Educationists lead by Benjamin Bloom in the USA in mid fifties laid the foundation for identifying educational objectives and thereby defining the knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to be developed in education. David McClelland the famous Harvard Psychologist has pioneered the competency movement across the world. His classic books on "Talent and Society", "Achievement Motive", "The Achieving Society", "Motivating Economic Achievement" and "Power the Inner Experience" brought out several new dimensions of the competencies. These competencies exposed by McClelland dealt with the affective domain in Bloom's terminology.

The turning point for competency movement is the article published in American Psychologist in 1973 by McClelland, wherein he presented that traditional achievement and intelligence scores may not be able to predict job success and what is required is to profile the exact competencies required to perform a given job effectively and measure them using a variety of tests. Latter McBer a Consulting Firm founded by David McClelland and his associate Berlew have specialized in mapping the competencies of entrepreneurs and managers across the world. They even developed a new and yet simple methodology called the Behavior Event Interviewing (BEI) to map the competencies.

1.1.3 Process
Competency Mapping process is designed to consistently measure and assess individual and group performance as it relates to the expectations of the organization and its customers. It is used to identify key attributes (knowledge, skills, and behavior attributes) that are required to...
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