Comparitive Anatomy Essay

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Comparative Anatomy Investigation

Aim: To create a scientific comparison between the Integumentary and Digestive systems between a mammal (i.e. Rat) and an amphibian (i.e. Toad).

A dissection of both a rat and a toad had been completed to make a comparison between an amphibian and a mammal. In specific the Integumentary system and the Digestive system were closely observed and studied. This comparison will first investigate the Integumentary system and all similarities and differences the two creatures share; it will then continue it’s comparison by investigating the digestive system.

Integumentary system
This is the external covering that shields its body from the physical environment. The primary use of the Integumentary system is to protect the internal body from viruses, bacteria, diseases and to stop larger objects from entering the internal body. The system also protects your body from dehydration, overheating, or freezing. There is usually more than one layer of skin on a species.

A toad’s (bufo marinus) Integumentary system consists of a thin, moist skin. The skin has two layers, an outer epidermis and an inner dermis. The state of QLD environmental protection agency (2007) discusses that there is also a thin exterior cuticle layer that the animal regularly sheds and eats. The epidermis is covered with large exocrine glands that excrete mucus which then spreads around the surface of the skin giving it further protection. Cane toads also breathe through their skin, thus having lots of small blood vessels close to the skins surface.

A rat’s (Rattus Rattus) Integumentary system however consists of three layers. These integument layers are called, according to Andrew Rader (2007), the epidermis (top), dermis, and subcutaneous (bottom). It is in these layers that hair and fingernails grow and where oil and sweat glands are located.

An important point to consider when making a comparison between these two species is that one is endothermic...
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