Landi L. Schock
May 28, 2012
Comparison and Analysis Theories Paper
Caring is described by nursing theorists as the core or essence of nursing. The concept of caring is being used by current and older theorists for the last 100 years. It seems as though “caring” and “nursing” go hand in hand. Four nursing leaders, Madeleine Leininger, Jean Watson, and the combination of Patrician Benner and Judith Wrubel all have care as their core concept. This paper will compare and contrast these theorists on what caring is to each of them. Madeleine Leininger first developed her theories about caring in the 1950s. She is the proponent of transcultural nursing and human care theory. According to Cohen (1991) “Leininger’s definition of caring states that caring is the central and unifying domain for the body of knowledge and practices in nursing. Caring in the generic sense refers to those assistive, supportive or facilitative acts towards or for another individual or group with evident or anticipated needs to ameliorate or improve a human condition or lifeway ” (pp. 899-909). Key to Leininger’s belief is that human caring is universal, but the expressions, processes, and patterns vary among cultures. According to Cohen (1991) “Leininger also differentiates professional caring as those cognitive and culturally learned behaviors, techniques, processes, or patterns that enable or help an individual, family, or community to improve or maintain a favorable healthy condition or lifeway ” (pp. 899-909). Leininger also talks about how human beings are inseparable from their cultural background and social structures. Her Sunrise Theoretical/Conceptual Model of Transcultural Care Diversity and Universality says that cultural and sociocultural factors of each person affect how each person takes on factors, meanings, and expressions of health and caring systems. This model has wide applicability. The model also has two phases of generating research knowledge- discovering substantive knowledge and applying the knowledge to situations. The major elements of Watson’s theory are three-part: the carative factors, the transpersonal caring relationship, and the caring occasion /caring moment. According to Cohen (1991) “Jean Watson in 1998 defines caring as the moral ideal of nursing whereby the end is protection, enhancement, and preservation of human dignity.” (899-909). Watson also talks about caring involving values, a will, and a commitment to care, knowledge, caring actions, and consequences. Her transpersonal caring is a spiritual union between two people that transcends self, time, and space. It depends on the nurses moral commitment in protecting and enhancing human dignity as well as the deeper/higher self. The nursing caring consciousness communicated to preserve and honor the embodied spirit. Third, the nursing caring consciousness and connection –having the potential to heal since experience, perception, and intentional connection are taking place. The final concept of the model is an actual caring occasion where two people come together with their own histories. It is both action and choice, and decides how to be in a relationship. It leads to the discovery of self. (Watson 1988). Another description is a caring occasion is the moment when the nurse and another person come together in such a way that an occasion for human caring is created. Both have the possibility to come together in a human-to –human transaction. (Cara, 2003). According to Cara ( 2003) “ carative factors are the guide for the core of nursing. They attempt to honor the human dimensions of nursing’s work and the inner life world and subjective experiences of the people we serve.”(p. 52). There are ten elements to the carative factors: humanistic/altruistic systems of value, faith-hope, sensitivity to self and others, helping-trusting, human care relationships, expressing positive...