Comparison of Three Isomers of Butanol

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Lab: Comparison of Three Isomers of Butanol

Pre-lab:
1. Write the general reaction of an alcohol and HCl.
2. What would the solubility be of an alcohol in water.
3. What would the solubility be of an alkyl halide in water? 4. What is the purpose of KMnO4 in the reactions?

Safety: Concentrated hydrochloric acid is corrosive and the vapour is very irritating to the respiratory system. Avoid contact with skin, eyes, clothing, and the lab bench. Wear eye protection and a lab apron. All three alcohols are highly flammable. Do not use near an open flame.

Purpose: To test our theories of how the molecular structure of an organic molecule affects its properties by comparing the chemical properties of three isomers of butanol.

Hypothesis: Predict which isomer will be the most reactive with HCl (hydrochloric acid). Predict which isomer will be the most reactive with the oxidizing agent (KMnO4).

Materials:
3 small test tubes
test-tube rack
4 eye droppers
1-butanol
2-butanol
2-methyl-2-propanol
concentrated HCl
KMnO4

Procedure:
1. Place 3 test tubes in a test-tube rack. Use a clean eye dropper for each alcohol, place 4 drops of 1-butanol in the first tube; in the second, place 4 drops of 2-butanol; and in the third, place 4 drops of 2-methyl-2-propanol. 2. Add 10 drops of concentrated HCl to each of the three test tubes. Shake the mixtures very gently. 3. Allow the tubes to stand for 1 min and observe for evidence of cloudiness. 4. Dispose of the contents of the test tubes in the organic waste container. 5. Set up three test tubes as described above for each alcohol. 6. To each tube, carefully add 2mL of KMnO4 solution. Shake the mixture carefully. 7. Allow the test tubes to stand for 5 min, with occasional shaking. Observe the colour of the solution in each test tube.

Observations: Prepare an observation table to record the reactants and the progression of the reaction.

Discussion:
1. Describe any difference in the...
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