Comparison of Stroop Effect on Turkish and English Bilinguals and the Effect of Proficiency Level on English

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 72
  • Published : April 17, 2009
Open Document
Text Preview
Running head: STROOP EFFECT STUDY ON BILINGUALS

Comparison of Stroop Effect on Turkish and English Bilinguals and the Effect of Proficiency Level on English

In partial fulfilment of the requirements for Statistics and Research Methods 5 June 2008

Abstract

People identify the color of a word faster if the word color is congruent with the ink color, than if the color is incongruent with the ink color. This is called Stroop Effect. In the present study the aim was to find whether language, which was used in order to express the word, affects the reaction time and whether the interference level increases in relation with the proficiency level in a language. Therefore stroop effect on Turkish-English bilinguals with Turkish as a dominant language was explored. The findings indicated our hypothesis was wrong there was no significant difference when the response language was English. However these findings contradict with the literature, according to the literature number of wrong responses and reaction time in the incongruent condition should be statistically more significant. If the language is more dominant, caused by the automaticity to the native language and automatic responses are more difficult to control. However there is no exact statement about it, different studies indicate different results. In addition to this there is no exact replication of the present experiment in literature since numerical pad was used instead of verbal task and it may have an caused the caused the contradictory results. On the other hand the findings suggest that proficiency in language does not have any influence on Stroop Effect. These findings are supported by some literature studies while it contradicts with some. This shows that the findings were inconclusive.

Comparison of Stroop Effect on Turkish and English Bilinguals and the Effect of Proficiency Level on English

Earlier studies show that; the performance in naming the congruent color words (e.g. the word “red” is represented in red color) was higher than naming the color of neutral stimulus. This is known as facilitation effect. Furthermore, the performance in naming the incongruent color words (e.g. the word “red” is represented in blue color) was lower than naming the color of neutral stimulus and this is know as interference effect (Goldfarb,Tzelgov,2007). As these studies were improved by later studies; congruent colored words were compared to incongruent colored words and it was observed that participants, who were skilled readers of that language, identify the color of the word faster if the word color is congruent with the ink color. In relation with this finding, their performance is slowed down if the word color is incongruent with the ink color. (Besner, Roberts, 2005). This is called the stroop effect. Stroop effect is one of the most important phenomena in cognitive psychology which is still being searched and it is revised by many researchers as it provides evidence that word reading is an automatic process. This means that people are not conscious while they are reading something; reading takes place although it is not intended (Besner, Roberts, 2005). For that reason recognizing the color takes more time than reading process (Cohen, Dunbar, McClelland, 1990). Moreover stroop effect is the best way to explain interference. As reading is an automatic process it is explored if it is possible to neglect the Stroop Effect by doing the experiment between-languages (MacLeod, 1991). As seen in the literature Preston and Lambert found that if the color names in two languages used in the Stroop Task were similar phonologically, such as English and German (green-grün) or French and Spanish, then response times were equivalent (Preston and Lambert cited in Magiste,1984). When the color names are not similar such as in Turkish and English, then there would be more interference in the native language, as the word would be recognized more...
tracking img