General Chart of Philosophical Models of EducationIdealism: Ideas are the only true reality, the only thing worth knowing. Focus: MindsRealism:
Reality exists independent of human mind. World of physical objects ultimate reality. Focus: BodiesPragmatism:
Universe is dynamic, evolving. Purpose of thought is action. Truth is relative. Focus: ExperiencesExistentialism:
Reality is subjective, within the individual. Individual rather than external standards. Focus: Freedoms
Originator(s)Plato, SocratesAristotle Charles Pierce, John DeweySartre, Kierkegaard Curricular EmphasisSubject matter of mind: literature, history, philosophy, religionSubject matter of physical world: science and mathSubject matter of social experience. Creation of new social orderSubject matter of personal choice Teaching MethodTeach method handling ideas: lecture and discussion questionTeach for mastery of facts and basic skills: demonstration and recitationProblem solving: Hand on
Project methodIndividual as entity within social context and Character DevelopmentImitating examples, heroesTraining in rules of conductMaking group decisions in light of consequencesIndividual responsibility for decisions and preferences Related Educational PhilosophiesPerennialism:
Focus: Teach ideas that are everlasting. Seek enduring truths which are constant, not changing, through old literature, art, philosophy and religion.Essentialism: Focus: Teach the common core, "the basics" of information and skills (cultural heritage) needed for citizenship. (Curriculum can change pace.)Progressivism: Focus: Ideas should be tested by active experimentation. Learning rooted in questions of learners in interaction with others. Experience and student centered.Reconstructionism/ Critical Theory
Focus: Critical pedagogy: Analysis of world events, controversial issues and diversity to provide vision for better...