In the name Allah""
Professor: Dr.Bahman Amani
Prepared by: Akbar Akbari
Place: IAU Maraghe
Date: May 6th 2010
To compare is to show how items are alike. To contrast is to show how items are different. Thus comparison and contrast involve pointing out the similarities or differences between two (or more) items. In deciding what to compare or contrast, you will want to make sure that the items share points in common. Thus, the items compared are usually the same kind or class of thing, and in comparing and contrasting them, you essentially establish two or more categories, showing the differences or similarities between or among them. For example, you can compare two passenger cars-a Ford and a Cadillac- with more precision than you can compare a Ford and a helicopter. Fords are compared with Cadillacs because they have many features in common – features you can pinpoint. Similarly, you can usually compare two paintings more precisely than you can compare a novel and a painting.
❖ Key words :
|Comparison |Contrast | |in comparison --- similar to---like ---alike---likewise |unlike---differ | |correspondingly---the same as---resemble---to have |from---however---otherwise---still---nevertheless---while--- | |in common---in the same way---compared to--- |in opposition---on the contrary---although | |compared with---as compared with---in comparison with |in contrast with--- contrary to--- to be different from |
1) Explaining something new ❖ Reasons for using comparison and contrast:
2) Decision making
1) Explaining sth new: comparison and contrast aren't new to you, they are extremely common ways of thinking. Sometimes you use comparison and contrast to talk about sth new, by telling your readers how a thing is similar to or different from sth they know, you can help them understand the new thing e.g. writing a "one paragraph paper" and writing "multi paragraph essays ". 2) Besides explaining sth new, comparison and contrast also appear frequently in decision making, because A and B share some characteristics but differ in others, one is better. E.g. you compare and contrast brands when you shop for groceries, stereos, automobiles, and so forth.
❖ Approaches to comparison and contrast:
Once you have picked out the closely related items, you will want to explain as clearly as possible the ways in which the items are alike or different. In any one piece of writing, you may want to use one of the following approaches. 1) Comparison only
2) Contrast only
3) Some of both in the same essay
❖ Other possibilities:
In addition to the above mentioned possibilities an author may adopt two other general approaches to the comparison- and- contrast paper. First, he can note the difference between items but concentrate on their similarity. (Comparison) Second, he can note the similarity between items but concentrate on their difference. (Contrast) ❖ Objective tone vs. Subjective tone
In objective tone a paragraph or essay presents the facts without including the writers own feeling about interpretation of these facts. However in subjective tone, a paragraph or essay includes the writer's own feelings about the topics are expressed.
❖ Model for one paragraph paper:
❖ Parts of a five paragraph essay:
❖ "Thesis" in the comparison and contrast:
Comparison and contrast lead logically to a thesis because you usually won't bother to compare and contrast unless...
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