The Oxford dictionary defines psychology as "Science of the nature, function and phenomena of human soul or mind: mental characteristics." (1980). The normal mental characteristics of the human mind are very difficult to categorize; so when looking at the disorders of the mind a number of factors have been identified that "attempt to define" (Meteyard, 2007, p. 49) what is abnormal or psychopathological. For this assignment I will be looking at four disorders that come under different major categories defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-1V). They are:
Mood Disorder (or Affective Disorder) Major Depression
Anxiety Disorder Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Overlaps into Dissociative Disorders. (Barker, 2006, p.10)
"Depressive disorders are among the most common psychological diagnoses, involving not just sadness but also negative views of the self and the future and physical and behavioural changes that impede enjoyment and activity". (Kendall, 1998, p. 121). The issues leading to depression can include medical problems e.g. low thyroid function, injuries, life threatening diseases, hormonal imbalances, chronic pain, etc. as well as stresses of life including family conflict, work and personality issues, death of close friends, relatives and even pets. Smoking, drugs and alcohol can all contribute to a depressive illness. (Beyond Blue, 2006) Or be caused be internal factors.
Symptoms of Depression: (can be emotional, behavioural, and physical) as cited in Management of Mental Disorders (2000);
1. Markedly depressed mood
2. Loss of interest or enjoyment
3. Reduced self-esteem and self-confidence
4. Feelings of guilt and worthlessness
5. Bleak and pessimistic views of the future
6. Ideas or acts of self-harm or suicide
7. Disturbed sleep
8. Disturbed appetite
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