The United Kingdom often called Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales (which make up Great Britain) and Northern Ireland. Britain is a constitutional monarchy in which the monarch (the Queen) is the head of state but whose daily duties requires her to a larger extent to adopt a ceremonial role.
Unlike the constitutions of most other states, the UK constitution is not set out in any single document. Instead of a constitution, Britain has the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty (supremacy). A.V. Dicey in his Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution says ‘The principle of parliamentary sovereignty means nothing more nor less than this, namely, that Parliament … has, under the English constitution, the right to make or unmake any law whatever; and, further, that no person or body is recognized by the law as having a right to override or set aside the legislation of Parliament.’ In layman terms it is a system in which parliament is allowed to change any law and its legislation cannot be challenged in the UK courts. The constitution is made up of statute law, common law and conventions. Conventions are rules and practices which are not legally enforceable but which are regarded as indispensable to the working of government; many are derived from the historical events through which the UK's system of government has evolved. The constitution can be altered by Act of Parliament, or by general agreement to alter a convention. It is thus adaptable to changing political conditions.
The Parliament at Westminster is the legislature and the supreme authority. It is called a “bicameral parliament” because it comprises of two legislative bodies: some members who are elected by popular vote and others who are appointed. A parliament has a maximum duration of five years but general elections are often held before the end of this term. The three elements which make up parliament (the Queen, the House of Lords and the elected House of Commons) are constituted on different principles. House of Lords
Made up of about 720 Peers, who are generally chosen based on their expertise in a certain area. Those appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister are called Life peers. “Hereditary Peers” is the name...