Good psychological health is characteristic of a person's ability to complete some key functions and activities, including: learning ability, ability of feel, expression and management of all kinds of positive and negative emotions, the ability to form and maintain good human relations and the ability of deal with and change management and uncertainty. (Mental health foundation) Good psychological health not only is the lack of may diagnose mental health problems, although a good mental health may help prevent the development of many of these issues. There are some mental health problems: strong emotional experience, behavior/motivation to change, physical/physical symptoms, unrealistic idea and thought prejudice and distress and damage function, etc. So in order to tackle those mental health problems, psychology clients need some effectively therapeutic approaches to treat. In generally, treating common mental health problems can through two main ways: Medication therapy and Psychological therapies. The ratio is 2:1 preference psychological therapy and medication therapy, when people seeking treatment for common psychological health problems. It can be seen that people are more willing to choose psychological therapies to treat their problems. The psychological therapies including: psychodynamic therapy, behavior therapy, humanistic therapy, cognitive therapy, systemic and family therapies. (Kate Cavanagh(lecture), 2012) In this essay, I will focus on the behavior therapy and cognitive therapy. Following paragraph will analysis the behavior therapy and the paragraph next the behavior therapy will explain cognitive therapy in detail. In the finally paragraph I will compare and contrast the main principles between behavior therapy and cognitive therapy.
The definition of behavior therapy is a nonbiological form of therapy that developed largely out of learning theory research and that is normally applied directly, incrementally, and experimentally in the treatment of specific maladaptive behavior patterns.(Erwin, 1978, p.44) There are two main principles here, ‘the classical conditioning principles’ and ‘the operant learning principles’. Classical conditioning is the learnt association between stimulus and response. Behaviorists have described many different phenomenons with classical conditioning. The most famous experiment is a famous physiologist Ivan Petrovich(1894-1936)’s experiment. The experiment is about the salivary reflex in dong. Without any special training in any way, when the researcher put the meat in a healthy dog’s mouth (the stimulus), the dog is starting to produce saliva quickly (the response). Then the assistant put the meat in a healthy dog’s mouth, and the dog still producing saliva, different from last time, at the same time assistant was ringing the bell. Finally, when assistant is ringing bell, the dog will producing saliva. It can be summing up to three basic stages of classical conditioning. (Geoffrey L &Sheryl L, 1990) Stage 1: food (unconditioned stimulus) can lead to salivation (unconditioned response). And bell (neutral stimulus) can lead to nothing (no effect). Stage 2: food (unconditioned stimulus) linked with bell (neutral stimulus), and food still lead to salivation (unconditioned response). Stage 3: bell (conditioned stimulus) can lead to salivation (conditioned response) directly. (Kendra Cherry (1)) Based on classical conditioning principles, the therapeutic approaches include: systematic desensitisation, aversion therapy, flooding and counter-conditioning / reciprocal inhibition. Joseph Wolpe, behavior therapy pioneer, developed a technology, called systematic desensitization therapy for anxiety related diseases and phobia. Systematic desensitization usually begins to see yourself in a progress and use relaxed fear and anxiety of the competition strategy. Once you can successfully manage your anxiety and imagine terrible events, you can use this technology in...
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