PROGRAMME: MPH COHORT 1
MODULE: HEALTH INFORMATICS SHI 500
REGISTRATION NUMBER: MPH R 118579 MH
UNIVERSITY: AFRICA UNIVERSITY
QUESTION:COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE DISTRICT HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEM (DHIS) AND COUNTRY RESPONSE INFORMATION SYSTEM (CRIS)
LECTURER: DR T. SIMBINI
DUE DATE: 23 AUGUST 2012
In this assignment, I am going to compare and contrast the Country Response Information System (CRIS) and the District Health Information System (DHIS). CRIS is an electronic record while the major part of the DHIS is paper based records. Several differences of paper-based medical records (DHIS) have been identified, such as illegible handwriting, ambiguous and incomplete data, data fragmentation, and poor availability. In addition, paper records often become bulky with time, which leads to lack of overview. Because paper records still represent the usual medium for collecting and recording patient data, these differences could impede the continuity and quality of care. There are also differences in attributes between the DHIS and CRIS such as that CRIS is web based, while DHIS to a greater extent is paper based, CRIS has 5 modules inter-alia.
Implementation of electronic record (EMR) systems such as CRIS promises significant advances in the quality of patient care, because such systems may enhance readability, availability, and data quality (http://www.emr.health.nsw.gov.au/index/wbt). In an EMR system, structured data are preferable to free text, because most benefits of EMRs rely on structured coded data. Structured data entry (SDE) applications can prompt for completeness, provide better ordering for searching and retrieval, and permit validity checks for data quality, research, and especially decision support.
Despite potential benefits, user acceptance will be the major barrier in implementation of EMR systems, because clinicians will face a change in their practice habits. The advantages of coded data must outweigh the disadvantages of capturing such data for SDE to become successful in clinical practice. (http://www.kevinmd.com/blog/2009/03/most-hospitals-still-use-paper-records.html). Functionality and the user interface will therefore be crucial for successful implementation.
The district Health Information System comprises of both electronic and paper based health records. To a greater extent the DHIS is paper based since much of the forms such as (T1-Notification of Infectious diseases, T3-OPD general disease tally sheet, T6- Preventive Services, T7-General Index Card, T8- Maternity Index Cards, Growth Monitoring Card, T12-OPD register among others, remain at health facility. At district level the following forms are paper based that is T9 quarterly inpatient return, psychiatric, T2 notification of infectious diseases, home based care, ZEPI wastage and ordering forms, CMAM-Community Management of Acute Malnutrition-CMAM).
At District level they make use of the District Health Information Software version 188.8.131.52. This version captures information on T-5 on monthly basis for outpatients and HS3/5 for in patients. T-5 is a comprehensive summary of data on outpatient diseases and preventive services. HS3/5 is a hospital workload statistics report, generated at hospitals only. The district health information system is also supported by a software application called Frontline SMS version 16.16.3. This software supports Rapid diseases notification system (RDNS). DHIS is also supported by the HIV and TB indicators Information System. This software captures information on PMTCT/OI/ART/VCT.
The DHIS, like any other information system, is comprised of five key components: hardware, Software, data, processes and people...