Carl Gustav Jung
Carl Jung challenged his mentor Freud with the hypothesis that adulthood not childhood represents the most significant phase of psychological growth. He believed that a sense of self does not even become established until adolescents. At this stage of life societal prohibitions and limitations are imposed, challenged, obeyed and internalised. Jung identified two major periods of development:
1. Youth- puberty to approximately 35 years. This stage he believed values are expanded in an outward direction. Individuals must focus outward to confront issues of sexuality making connections with others and establishing a place in the world. 2. Adulthood- 35/ 40 years to old age. Here values are focused in an inward direction. Adults develop a refine sense of spirituality, as well as commitment to life and a smaller circle of loved ones they must contemplate their values, culture and even death. For Jung the psyche consist of three major parts;
* Personal unconsciousness
* Collective unconsciousness
Consciousness is a part of the mind that is directly known by the individual. It appears early in life by the operations of four basic functions :- (1) thinking
In addition there are two attitudes that determine the orientation of the conscious mind the Extroversion and the Intraversion. The extraversion libido ( Jung’s term for psychic energy as a whole or life forces) is directed towards the objective world of physical objects, people, customs, social institution, conventions, etc. Extraverts are preoccupied with interpersonal relationship and are generally more active and outgoing. The introversion libido is directed inwards towards the subjective world of thoughts and feelings and preoccupied with intrapersonal matters, are introspective and withdrawn and may seem to others as reserved and antisocial. The development of the consciousness...
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