In Kenya and Brazil
“Integration of sustainable development to higher education: Innovative practices between federal universities and Bank of Brazil with impact over associative and cooperative production” By Paulo Speller & Antonio Augusto dos Santos Soares “Education for sustainability in” By Dorcas B. Otieno Kenya Organization of Environmental Education (KOEE) (All of the quotations in this essay are from these two papers.)
1 Goals & Strategies:
-Impacting regions and segments social and economically excluded, a strategy of sustainable regional development (DRS) is being implemented in Brazil. -This strategy involves a group of federal universities and Bank of Brazil, associated to other government controlled financial institutions. -It has three main goals: to promote social inclusion by generating more jobs and income and by democratizing the access to credit; to improve life quality and strengthen small business; to stimulate associativism and cooperativism. -DRS strategy basically incorporates federal universities to educate and train managers and officials in an MBA program in “Business Management in Sustainable Development”. -The Bank staff becomes prepared for the new role, which is helping or opening credit access to mini and small entrepreneurs formally and informally. DRS concentrates in around 70 productive activities and services. -Within a value chain where both primary resources and final commodities are considered, the business plan involves the cooperation of all participant actors. -Within the framework of sustainability, economic feasibility and constant betterment of the final product make the business itself viable.
-Education, public and awareness and training are important to sustainable development, especially to the meeting basic needs, poverty alleviation, etc. -There main programme areas of action are: “reorienting education towards sustainable development; increasing public awareness; promoting training.” -There are four pillars of education: learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together and learning to be. -“Education for sustainability can be defined as a lifelong learning process that leads to and informed and involved citizenry having the creative problem solving skills, scientific and social literacy and commitment to engage in responsible individual and co-operative actions.” -“To bring about attitudinal and behavioral change in people through public participation in all stages of education process.” - “Sustainable development is not production centred, it is people centred. It must be appropriate not only to the environmental resources but also to the culture, history and social system of the place where it is to occur.” -“Effective educational system at all levels, particularly at the primary and secondary levels, that is accessible to all and that augments both human capacity and well being.” -National policy on environmental education
--“Environmental studies be part and parcel of the education and training curricula and be taught at all levels of education”; -- “Development should not be at the expense of the environment”;
-“National goals of education defined by the government to promote accessibility to education are:
Universal access to basic education.
Completion of primary education by at least 70% of primary school age children. Reduction of adult illiteracy to at least half of its 1990 level. Expansion of educational facilities.
To foster and promote national unity and development
Promote respect for the diverse cultures of Kenyan communities.”
-“The overall goal is to introduce comprehensive environmental education programmes in the formal education sector, from pre-primary to University to enable all its users assume responsibility and action towards sustainable use of the...