Compare and Contrast Hitler's and Mussolini's Domestic Policies

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Initially, both Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler had the same desire to make their nation a respected and economically solid Great Power. Mussolini wanted to return Italy to its glory days of the ancient Roman Empire. A strong economy and a united state were necessary for both countries in case of the outbreak of another war. WWI left both Germany and Italy with severe economic problems, which soon turned into social problems such as high unemployment and inflation - issues which had to be dealt with domestically.

Mussolini was very ambitious about his domestic policies. In a speech to the Italian Senate in 1923 Mussolini said; “I want to make the people of Italy strong, prosperous and free.” Italians were expecting a lot from their new “Duce”, especially with the social and economic problems Italy was going through during the post-war years. As the new leader of Italy, Mussolini knew he had to solve these problems, one way or another, so that this success would bring more popularity to him and the fascists.

Mussolini's main economic aim was to bring Italy’s economy to a somehow same level as France and Britain to threaten them and the other great industrial powers. After 1925, he launched a series of “Battles”. The battle for grain doubled grain production between 1925-1929. The battle for land controlled migration. The battle for Lira revalued the Lira, however exports became expensive resulting in a decrease in income. The economy became severely depressed.

Mussolini reformed Italy’s transport system. The building of bridges, canals, and major road systems improved communication throughout the country. Mussolini’s government educational standards were high. The school leaving age was raised, new schools were built. Between 1922 and 1939, the number of secondary schools increased by 120%.

All the policies Hitler enacted on the German people were of a totalitarian government. The secret police force, called the Gestapo, enforced everything. One...
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