Although the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations paved the way modern civilizations, they have more differences that are illustrated in the areas of military, agriculture & society, and government types.
Egypt spent most of its history as a unified monarchy, whereas Mesopotamia seems to have begun as a collection of city-states (known as Sumeria) and continued to be dominated by a pair of mutually hostile powers: Assyria and Babylon. As a result, Mesopotamia's history is significantly more conflict-based than that of Egypt, because Mesopotamia was only united when conquered by a major empire (Egyptian under Thutmose III or Chaldean/Neo-Babylonian under Nabopolassar)However, On the subject of war and armies, the Egyptian army was more effective for longer than its Mesopotamian counterparts, but it was Assyria, an innovative Mesopotamian power, that had the greatest impact on warfare (and indeed the surrounding region), even though its successes were largely limited to the last three centuries of its existence.
Both Egypt and Mesopotamia were occupied by agricultural societies relying upon irrigation for crop yield. In Egypt, the Nile River overflowed its banks annually, depositing rich natural fertilizing elements that enabled Egyptians to grow wheat and barley, often providing a surplus. While the yearly rise of the Nile in Egypt was predictable, this was not the case in Mesopotamia. As a result, Mesopotamian cultures had to develop a system of canals to control flooding and redistribute the water over a greater area because the flood's were unpredictable. Both countries also had a hot, dry climate and fertile soil, good for supporting large populations.
Politically, Mesopotamia culture created compact self-governing political units (the city-states). By the third millennium B.C.E. the concept of king developed, possibly because of increased quarrels over resources. The power of religious leaders was undermined by the...