The development of children and adolescents has always been a topic of debate, not till much later in the psychology world was this subject looked at as its own. With the help of psychologist such as Freud and Erickson developmental theories were able to help understand this type of development. Children are ever changing and growing with the combination of these three theories; psychoanalytical, learning, and cognitive theories, they are able to develop. These theories help children become part of society and someday become functioning adults.
The psychoanalytic perspective is the “View of human development as being shaped by unconscious forces”, (Page 27, Papalia, 2010). Sigmund Freud was a big contributor to the psychoanalytic perspective. One of the major contributions would be the three parts of the personality. Freud came up with the id, the ego, and the super ego. The id is the instant gratification. The ego is “The ego’s aim is to find reasonably realistic ways to gratify the id that are also acceptable to the superego” (Page 27, Papalia, 2010). And the super ego, “The superego, which develops at about age 5 or 6, contains the conscience; it incorporates socially approved “shoulds” and “should nots” into the child’s value system”, (Page 27, Papalia, 2010). One of the important theories that Freud came up with is the psychosexual theory. The psychosexual theory is, “In Freudian theory, an unvarying sequence of stages of personality development during infancy, childhood, and adolescence, in which gratification shifts from the mouth to the anus and then to the genitals” (Page 28, Papalia, 2010). Freud thought that if some of these needs weren’t meant as a child it would carry on to adulthood. For example, “Babies whose needs are not met during the oral stage, when feeding is the main source of pleasure, may become nail biters or develop “bitingly” critical personalities.
A person who, as a toddler, had too-strict toilet training may be fixated at the anal stage. Such a person may be obsessively clean, rigidly tied to schedules and routines, or defiantly messy” (Page 28, Papalia). Freud saw the phallic stage as having the key event in psychosexual development; this is where children realize the gender difference.” At the center of Freud's theory of childhood development is the Oedipus complex. According to Freud, a boy's close relation to his mother, as the primary love-object, leads to a desire for complete union with her” (Eagleton). Girls go through something like that, it’s called penis envy. They usually become closer to the father because they realize that the male has the power. Once they get over this the girls will go back to their mother and take on their female role. These events are pretty much not relevant and mostly outdated. “Freud made us aware of the importance of unconscious thoughts, feelings, and motivations; the role of childhood experiences in forming personality; the ambivalence of emotional responses, especially responses to parents; the role of mental representations of the self and others in the establishment of intimate relationships; and the path of normal development from an immature, dependent state to a mature, interdependent one” (Page 29, Papalia, 2010). Some of Freud’s research wasn’t really relevant to the masses; he mostly used upper class women that were his patients. This made it pretty difficult to apply these key facts to other people. Erik Erickson was another major contributor to psychology; a major theory was the psychosocial theory. The first stage is trust vs. trust, this usually takes place from birth tell twelve to eighteen months. During this stage children are developing their ideas of the world, if their needs are meant they know the world is a safe place. If they don’t have their needs met they may grow up to not trust others.
At the same age, autonomy vs. shame and doubt is also developing up to the age of three. This is when the child learns a sense of...
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