Comparative Study of the Properties of Organic Compounds Through Various Tests

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Johanna Lynne La Rosa, Denise Gianelli Lopez,
Anna Reyzell Lundang, Marlon Mallillin III
and Jacinto Mari Manual
Group 5 2E Pharmacy Organic Chemistry Laboratory

Organic compounds have been subjected to comparative investigation to differentiate the behaviour of one from the other. The physical state at room temperature, odor and color of the samples were noted by simple observation. The samples are classified as to miscible, slightly immiscible or immiscible if it is a liquid and very soluble, soluble, partially soluble or insoluble, depending on its reaction with the solvents. The samples were also tested using litmus paper to classify its acidity, basicity and neutrality. Another test performed was the ignition test which classify the samples to compounds which upon ignition gave non- luminous (blue flame), luminous (yellow flame) with soot or luminous without soot flame. After going through all these tests, it is proven that different organic compounds exhibit different properties.

Organic compounds are defined as compounds that contain carbon. When organic compounds reacts, some existing bonds break and some new bonds form. Bonds form when two atoms share electrons, and bonds break when two atoms no longer share electrons. How readily a bond forms and how easily it breaks depend on the particular electrons that are shared, which, in turn, depend on the atoms to which the electrons belong [2]. There are more than 37 million known organic compounds. Each of these compounds has its own physical properties, such as melting point, and each has its own chemical reactivity. Chemists have learned through years of experience that organic compounds can be classified into families according to their structural features and that the members of a given family often have similar chemical reactivity [1]. Since Carbon atoms are able to create double and triple bonds with other atoms or to itself, it further raises the likelihood for variation in the molecular make-up of organic compounds. All hydrocarbons are insoluble in water because they are non-polar. There are two large classes of hydrocarbon namely: unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons are the simplest type of organic compounds where all carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds and thus contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen per carbon. Example of saturated hydrocarbon is an alkane. On the other hand, because of their multiple bond, alkenes and alkynes have fewer hydrogens per carbon than related alkanes and are therefore referred to as unsaturated. Organic compounds may have similar physical properties but differ in chemical properties [8]. Miscibility is the property of liquids to mix in all proportions therefore forming a homogenous solution. Flammability, which is tested through ignition test, measures the extent to which a material or a substance will support combustion. Vapor pressure is an important consideration in determining the ease of ignition of a substance or material. Substances are determined by the characteristics of their flame when they burn. Some compounds exhibits blue flame or yellow, sooty flame due to their high carbon content. Some may burn with flames that are yellow but less sooty [6]. The objective of the experiment is to differentiate the organic compounds in terms of certain intrinsic physical properties and their behavior towards ignition.

A. Compound Tested or Samples Used
* Cyclohexane
* Ethanol
* Phenol
* Benzoic Acid
* Ethyl Acetate
* Ethylamine
* 5% NaOH solution
* 5% HCl solution

Figure1. Samples Used in the Experiment

B. Procedure
1. Observation of Physical State, Color and Odor
The physical state of the sample at room temperature was observed. Then, the color was noted and with a wafting motion, the...
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