Comparative Social Policy

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Hong Kong and England have an inseparable relationship with each other. Starting from 1842 to 1997, Hong Kong was one of the colonies under British Empire. The 156 years relationship ended when United Kingdom transferred Hong Kong’s sovereignty to the China government on 1st July 1997. In this period, British government controlled Hong Kong Education and Housing policies but those policies are not as same as England. After the regime shifted to China, Hong Kong government had changed from the old policies. In the project, I will mainly focus on the comparison of the policies after 1997. In the first part, I will introduce the education policy in Hong Kong and England. The following part is the introduction of the housing policy in Hong Kong and England. The third part is about the differences in policies in two countries. The last part I will discuss why there are such differences in two countries.

Education Policy in HK and England
Before 1997, Hong Kong was a British colony which under the rule of Governor. The Executive Council and Legislative Council would provide advises or suggestions to the governor. Most of the members in councils were appointed by Britain and some of the members were fresh graduated from Britain and learnt about Chinese. Hong Kong education system and policy were similar to the UK’s education System. There were some small village school in Hong Kong before 1860s and their education system was different from the Britain education system. At that time, the rich people in HK sent their children back to China for the traditional education because they thought that British education was not suitable for them. British Hong Kong Government had an education reform to satisfy the Chinese society. They provided subsidies to the local schools. In the other hand, some Church set up school in Hong Kong and those religion background organizations wanted to use this method to train some Chinese missionaries or become Christian. As a result, there was a long period that Church/religion monopolizes the education. On 1860, the fifth Hong Kong governor Hercules George Robert Robinson set up Board of Education and later on, British Hong Kong Government set up the first Central School. It was a watershed in Chinese education in Hong Kong. The British Hong Kong Government, through the establishment of the Central School and the education of Chinese children, in order to strengthen the governance of the Chinese. Moreover, it was also a corresponding policy for the British Hong Kong Government to the Chinese position gradually increased proposed by after the 1860s.

Starting from 1870s to 1900s, Chinese leaders that mostly located in new territories had the power to set up Chinese institutions like Po Leung Kuk. These kind of Chinese institutions provided free school for the children and taught Confucianism in the beginning. In the other hand, the British Hong Kong Government's education policy In the 1860s trained a number of new generations who studied Western-style education. They supported the government and helped to promote the dissemination of new knowledge.

The education system before Japanese occupation was very limited involvement from Hong Kong government. Only few school places and high school fees. Many poor cannot go to school. In the 1960s, the comprehensive school system was launched in England. This made government changed and started to improve the educational policy while a large number Chinese came to Hong Kong. The Education Department was set up for improving the policy and responsible for the education policy. Hong Kong government followed the comprehensive school system that was 6 years for primary school and 7 years for secondary school. Although the school fees were reduced, secondary school fees still not affordable for most of the Chinese families. All the students need to attend Primary School Examination for the certificate of finishing primary school sducation. There was a major...
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