November 10, 2012
Public Health and Community Health
The name Public health and community health are interchangeable. Community health nursing originally called public health nursing from 1900-1970 combines nursing science and public health science to form a community-based and population-focused practice. The overall goal is to improve the health of the communities and vulnerable populations. During the colonial era American cities were invaded with severe cases of small pox and yellow fever. By the 1790s vaccinations replaced the inoculation of the diseases; small pox and yellow fever were was no longer a serious public health concern. The rapid urbanization of the nineteenth century caused serious public health problems. In particular, cities are vulnerable to diseases spread by contact and insect vectors, such as tuberculosis and typhus, and to other diseases transmitted by contaminated water supplies, such as typhoid fever. Throughout the period, the death rate for urban dwellers was considerably higher than for residents of rural areas ("History of Public Health in America", 2012). Many new disease stuck American cities such as cholera. Cholera caused 6, 000 deaths in New Orleans and in many other cities. Many cities were ordered to clean up waste organic filth. These changes greatly improved public health. Water borne vectors that spread diseases such as typhoid, cholera, malaria, and typhus were eliminated or brought under control. During the late nineteen century public health was officials were focused on bacteriology and the germ theories of disease. More vaccines, serums, and bacteriological products were created. Not every disease could be attacked by eliminating insect vectors or by using biological products developed in laboratories. These measures had only limited effectiveness in dealing with tuberculosis and infant mortality, which together accounted for about 30...