Community Policing

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Community Policing

Justice 600 – Final Paper: Community Policing
Jehnel Smith
Southern New Hampshire University

Abstract
New goals of the 21st century will determine the relationship between police and citizens. Throughout the United States many police departments have created programs that will enhance better interaction and communication with citizens. The program will foster confidentiality and build stronger relations with citizens. Policing has taken on many forms structuring effective ways to improve its position in society. Police and citizens have built walls between them where communities have fallen between the cracks. The images of embedded hatred will hopefully diminish as police and citizens bridge the gap of communication. In the 21st century policing has taken on a new strategy where it builds partnerships that will blossom where the citizens are no longer a forgotten entity in communities.

Introduction
Police departments in the United States felt the need to bring a positive reputation to the police organization with realization they cannot prevent crime alone. From past experiences and withdrawals from community ties the need of assistance from the citizens will allow the police to better serve the community and bring forth the moral value of policing. In this paper, I will briefly give description of the history in structuring policing leading up to integration of community policing, outline the components of community policing and how it is incorporated in the daily functions of policing in the 21st century. Incorporate information from an interview led by me conducted with William Parrish, Chief of Police in Stroud Area Police Department. Give descriptions of various communities policing initiatives practiced during the era of homeland security methods.

The community policing ideology stems as far back as Sir Robert Peel’s concept of principles for policing in forming the Metropolitan Police Department in London in 1829. Quoted from Sir Peel in his original principle: “The police are the public and the public are the police; the police being only members of the public who are paid to give full attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence.” The most concerns in Peel’s principles were outlined as carrying out preventive roles of policing and positive relationships and communication amongst the police and the citizens of the communities. However, policing in the United States arised, structured and improved along with many changes that stemmed away from the community policing ideology. Credited with some of these amendments is August Vollmer who instituted many practices that led to the professionalism of policing in 1932. Policing was practiced as a stricter paramilitary model of policing that concentrated on the classical principles of organization for example, hierarchy and strict lines of authority/chain of command. (Dempsey, 2008) Although, some police departments have engaged in adopting the concept of community policing in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s team policing programs; in addition to departments created police community relations units. Unfortunately, these programs failed due to they were not properly integrated into the police operations. Additionally, in the midst of technology advancements of patrol cars and telephones; policing became distant with communities which eventually this led policing to adopt COP programs. (Morabito, 2010)

In the 1990s, under the Clinton Administration community policing was a primary law enforcement priority by the Federal government. In 1994, the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) was established to advance community policing in the United States under the Crime Control Act. This initiative allowed the law enforcement to hire 100k community police officers by giving several grants to law enforcement agencies to implement such programs. Practices of involving...
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