Health seeking behavior: prostate cancer screening among African-American men ages 40 and older related to the fact that African American men are 50% more likely to develop prostate cancer than any other racial or ethnic group (Maurer & Smith, 2005, p. 443) and risk factors: family history of prostate cancer, a diet high in fat, and non-participation in screenings as evidenced by a total prostate cancer mortality rate of 84 deaths per 100,000 population in 2009-2011and an incidence of 606 per 100,000 population in 2009-2011 in Orange County, Florida; and Healthy People 2020 C-7 reduce the prostate cancer death rate: Baseline: 23.5 prostate cancer deaths per 100,000 males and Target: 21.2 deaths per 100,000 population; and Healthy People 2020 C-19 (Developmental) Increase the proportion of men who have discussed with their health care provider whether or not to have a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to screen for prostate cancer. (Florida Charts, 2010; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Review of Literature
PICO: In African-American men, are focus groups using audio-visual methods of prostate cancer risks and early detection better than videography in increasing knowledge about the importance of early prostate screening, diagnosis, and treatment?
According to the American Cancer Society (2012), African American men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer are more likely to die than any other race or ethnicity. Prostate cancer ranks fifth in overall cause of death among African American men aged 45 and over. From 2009-2011, 42.5 per 100,000 African American men died from prostate cancer in Florida. Studies show that this disproportion is due to African American men not being screened in the early stages of the disease and delaying treatment in the later stages of disease progression (Carter, Tippett, Anderson, Tameru, 2010). It is estimated that over 230,000 men will be diagnosed with and over twenty nine thousand men will die of prostate cancer in the year 2013 (American Cancer Society, 2012). Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among men, with the exception of lung cancer. Among African American men, disparity in incidence has been attributed to lack of access to healthcare screening, decreased awareness of cancer symptoms, and various environmental and biological factors (Rivers, Underwood, Jones, 2009). Among 4,782 groups of men, only 37.1 percent report use of available cancer screenings and only 14 percent reported a high level knowledge among prostate cancer. African American men experience a higher mortality rate than white men, and this may be attributed to the fact that they present with more advanced stages of the disease and thus worsens the outcome of survival rates. This paper attempts to identify the cause and incidence of prostate cancer among African American men in Orange County, FL and facilitate an increase in prostate cancer awareness early in the disease. Why is this diagnosis a health problem for this target group? Prostate cancer is responsive to early detection, and more than 75% of prostate cancer cases are diagnosed when the disease is locally confined and curable. “The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) found that although early detection and treatment might prevent some prostate cancers from spreading, screening is also likely to detect other cancers that would have grown slowly and not caused health problems” (McBride, 2009). Although routine screening for prostate cancer is a contentious issue, prostate cancer screening offers the only possibility of early detection for individuals at high risk. African American men have the highest prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates worldwide, but have lower screening rates compared with Caucasian men. Risk factors such as age and...