COLLEGE OF NURSING
COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING
Health Promotion and Public Health
• A State of complete physical, mental and social well- being, not merely an absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 1948). • A State of being well and using every power the individual possesses to the fullest extent (Nightingale, 1969). • Optimum Level of Functioning (OLOF)
Determinants of Health (World Health Organization)
• The health of individuals and communities are, to a large extent, affected by a combination of many factors. 1. Income and social status – Higher income and social status are linked to better health. 2. Education – Low education levels are linked with poor health, more stress and lower self-confidence. 3. Physical Environment – Safe water and clean air, healthy workplaces, safe houses, communities and roads all contribute to good health. 4. Employment and working conditions – People in employment are healthier, particularly those who have more control over their working conditions. 5. Social support networks – Greater support from families, friends and communities is linked to better health. 6. Culture – Customs and traditions, and the beliefs of the family and community all affect health. 7. Genetics – Inheritance plays a part in determining lifespan, healthiness and the likelihood of developing certain illness. 8. Personal Behavior and coping skills – Balanced eating, keeping active, smoking, drinking, and how we deal with life’s stresses and challenges all affect health. 9. Health Services – Access and use of services that prevent and treat disease influence health. 10. Gender – Men and Women suffer from different types of diseases at different ages.
Eco-System Influences on Optimum Level of Functioning (OLOF) 1. Political - Safety, Oppression, People Empowerment
2. Behavior - Culture, Habits, Mores, Ethnic Customs
3. Heredity - Generic Endowment (Defects, Strengths, Risk, Familial, Ethnic, Racial) 4. Health Care Delivery System - Promotive, Preventive, Curative, Rehabilitative 5. Environment - Air, Food, Water Waste, Urban/Rural, Noise, Radiation, Pollution 6. Socio-Economic - Employment, Education, Housing
• The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, promoting health and efficiency through organized community effort for the sanitation of the environment, control of communicable diseases, the education of individuals in personal hygiene, the organization of medical and nursing services for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease and the development of the social machinery to ensure everyone a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health, so organizing these benefits as to enable every citizens to realize his birthright of health and longevity. (Dr. C.E. Winslow). • The art of applying science in the context of politics so as to reduce inequalities in health while ensuring the best health for the greatest number. It points to the facts that public health is a core elements of governments’ attempts to improve and promote the health and welfare of their citizens (WHO).
Core Business of Public Health
1. Disease control
2. Injury prevention
3. Health protection
4. Healthy public policy including those in relation to environmental hazards such as in the workplace, housing, food, water, etc. 5. Promotion of health and equitable health gain.
• The core business of public health cannot be achieved without the proper delivery of essential public health functions which Yach described as “a set of fundamental activities that address the determinants of health, protect a population’s health and treat disease.
Essential Public Health Functions
1. Health situation monitoring
2. Epidemiological surveillance/disease prevention and control 3. Development of policies and planning in...