Community Conceptual Model
Community Conceptual Model
Conceptual models are effective guides and tools used for nursing practice. They merge concepts and ideas providing a framework for how to think or demonstrate the elaborate connections between concepts, structures, or a system. They categorize existing interrelationships amid concepts into ways that can effectively direct actions and interventions. The objective of this paper is to define and examine the social ecology model and its application to the nursing process and community health problems. Historical Development
The historic development of the social ecology model originates back to the systems theory and Dr. Urie Bronfenbrenner’s social ecological model of human development. Urie Bronfenbrenner is known as the father of the social ecology theory as his work greatly influenced human development theory and social policy. His model is a systems model that encourages an individual to look for connections across various levels depicted by concentric circles with the individual as the center. Social elements within this model are individual, relationships, community, and societal. This model takes into account the multifaceted interaction between individual, relationship, community, and societal factors. The social ecological model divides factors into four systems: micro system, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem and describe influences as intercultural, community, organizational, and interpersonal. The mesosystem is the first level connecting structures of a child’s micro system or physical environment. The second layer, the exosystem, identifies structures that influence an individual’s development, for example, culture, lifestyle, support network, community, and access to services. The macrosystem layer is composed of values, laws, and cultural customs. Interactions within this layer can influence interactions though out the other layers. Last the chronosystem layer is the outer layer that focuses on the internal and external dimensions of time and aging. This layer may provide insight and predict the way an individual would react, behave, and influence environmental changes. Concepts
The concept of community may be regarded as systems made up of individual members and segments that have divergent characteristics and interrelationships. These sectors are groups of people who have specialized functions, interests, or activities in a community system. Each sector has specific boundaries and meets the needs of those in the community. A second concept is community engagement defined as working collaboratively to address issues of well being in groups within the same proximity, interests, or like situations. The process of community engagement is influential in addressing behavior and environmental change. A third concept is cultural influences. An individual’s culture influences behaviors, attitudes, habits, likes, dislikes, customs, and any characteristic that has been learned from family. Nursing efforts should be developed in ways consistent with the culture of the community. Application to Nursing Process
The nursing process is a problem-solving method for meeting an individual’s health and nursing care needs. The five steps of the nursing process are, assessment of the patient’s needs, diagnosis of human response needs that nurses can influence, planning for patient care, implementation of care, and evaluation of the implemented care. The nursing process is grounded in theory and evidence-based practice. The social ecological model can be applied into the diagnostic phase in which the nurse is assessing the patient’s needs, which may be individual, relationship, community, or societal. Caring for a community is a key factor in the improvement of health and responsiveness in the community. Assessment in this model involves assessing factors that influence, enable or underpin...
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