Community Acquired Pneumonia

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Pneumonia is one of the most common infectious diseases prevalent nowadays and affects all ages. It is an acute or chronic infection of one or both lungs caused by microorganisms, such as viruses, bacteria or chemical irritants. (Schmitt, 2011) It has different types, and one of them is Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP). CAP is a disease in which individuals who have not recently been hospitalized develop an infection of the lungs. It occurs because the areas of the lung which absorbs oxygen (alveoli) from the atmosphere become filled with fluid and cannot work effectively. (Makati Medical Center, 2012)

There are many causes of pneumonia, including bacteria, viruses, mycoplasmas, fungal agents, and protozoa. (Black, 2009) Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most commonly identified pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia. Other pathogens that may cause pneumonia are Haemophilus influenza and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. (Schmitt, 2011) Many clients with pneumonia may have flushed cheeks, bright eyes, chest or pleuritic pain or discomfort, myalgia, headache, chills, fever, cough, tachycardia, tachypnea, and sputum production. Severe chest muscle weakness may also be present. Crackles or wheezes are heard upon auscultation. (Ignatavicius, 2006) Some people have an underlying problem which increases their risk of getting an infection. Chronic lung disease, compromised immune system, corticosteroids or other medications that suppress the immune system, swallowing disorders, smoke and environmental pollutants, and drug and alcohol abuse are all risk factors for having CAP. (Schmitt, 2011) Several tests can be performed to identify the cause of an individual's CAP. X-rays of the chest, examination of the blood and sputum for infectious microorganisms, and blood tests are commonly used to diagnose individuals with suspected CAP based upon symptoms and physical examination. (Smeltzer, 2004) Most cases of pneumonia generally run an uncomplicated course. Complications may include the following: pleurisy, pleural effusion, atelectasis, delayed resolutions, lung abscess, emphyma, pericarditis, arthritis, meningitis and endocarditis. (Dirksen, 2005) There is no optimal therapy for community-acquired pneumonia. It is treated by administering an antibiotic which is effective in killing the offending microorganism as well as managing any complications of the infection. (Hockenberry, 2007) Nurses play a key role in patient recovery from CAP. Positioning the client in bed, auscultating patient’s chest for abnormal breath sounds, administering due medications as ordered by the physician and assisting patient to have enough hydration are some of the nursing care management a nurse can render to this kind of patient. (Mandell, 2007) Immunization against influenza and increasingly resistant pneumococci can play a critical role in preventing pneumonia, particularly in immunocompromised and older adults, which is administered annually. (Schmitt, 2011) The Prognosis of pneumonia is generally good, with rapid recovery when it is recognized and treated early. (Hockenberry, 2007) According to the National Statistical Coordination Board of the Philippines, there are 776,562 of pneumonia in the country in 2004 alone. This could be an implication that pneumonia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the country. (Nemours Foundation, 2010) PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES

The purpose of the study aims to discuss the nursing care of a client with Community acquired Pneumonia with low risk.
Specifically, this study sought to answer the following:
1.Identify the factors that led to the development of the disease.
2.Analyze the relationship of the factors leading to the development of the problem.
3.Discuss the relevant interventions that were utilized to resolve the problem.
3.1. Classify applicable interventions according to promotive, preventive, rehabilitative and curative levels of care.
3.2....
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