Homeland Security 302
Werner D. Lippert
International relations are an integral part of globalization and relations in the modern world between different nations. These relations extend to include state agencies, non-governmental organizations, inter-government organizations, and multinationals. It also extends to the relations that exist between nations and groups that have an international outlook. This means that technology; communication, war, acts of terror, and global sporting events all have something to do with international relations. In this discourse, the interest lies in the implications that terrorism has on international relations. The effects of terrorism are negative and in most cases contribute to poor and worsening relations between the countries that are affected. The extent of damage to relations/ties is determined by whether the criminal elements within a country responsible for acts of terror in another sovereign nation are sanctioned and supported by that nation’s government or are carried out through the group’s own initiative. The focus will be on the Philippines and on the New People’s Army that is also the military faction of the Communist Party of the Philippines. The NPA has been categorized by the U.S. Homeland Security as a terrorist group and included as one of the Foreign Terrorist Organizations as stipulated under section 219 in the Immigration and Nationality Act.
Terrorism continues to be a thorny issue in matters of international relations, especially in the current times characterized by religious antipathy. This is especially true for members of the Muslim community who have taken it upon themselves to seek retribution for purported evils committed by Christian or secular governments, such as the government of the United States. Terrorism is defined in the Domestic Terrorism and Homegrown Violent Extremism Lexicon as; any activity that involves an act that is dangerous to human life or potentially destructive to critical infrastructure or key resources, and is a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any state or other subdivision of the United States and it appears to be intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion or to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination or kidnapping.
The actions and activities carried out by the Communist Party of the Philippines/New People’s Army qualify the entity as a terrorist organization. The main aim of this organization is to overthrow the Philippines government. To achieve this objective, the organization has created widespread fear through acts of intimidation toward the Filipino people. This is a discourse into the organization, its outlook, and how its actions have contributed to its classification as a Foreign Terrorist Organization. Communist Party of the Philippines: New People’s Army
The New People’s Army has been in existence for the last four and a half decades as the armed/military branch of the Communist Party of the Philippines. It is a dominantly Maoist party hence its support of communist ideals and ideology. The party wishes that the same be used and adhered to uniformly in the whole of the Philippines. The group was formed with the sole aim of carrying out an armed struggle. The group was originally divided into four distinct divisions, each with different functions. However, all these entities have perpetuating the same ideology and pursuing the same objective; a communist Philippines (Saulo, 1969). Currently, the NPA is classified a terrorist group only in the United States and the European Union. The Philippine government thinks otherwise hence its decision to delist the group in 2011. At the moment, advanced talks are ongoing to bolster peace between the group...