Communism in Russia

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SOCIAL INEQUALITY AND WHY IT MATTERS FOR THE ECONOMIC AND DEMOCRATIC DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPE AND ITS CITIZENS: POST-COMMUNIST CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

DELIVERABLE 2 DESK RESEARCH

RUSSIA

Evdokimova E.P.; Eremitcheva G.V.; Ignatova S.N.; Poretskina E.M. Sociological Institute of Russia Academy of Sciences. Scientific consultants: Man’ko Ju.V., St.Petersburg University of Technology and Design, professor Olimpieva I.B., Cenetr of Independent Social Research, PhD Cherejskij V.L., St.Petersburg State Pedagogical University, PhD Jakimenko A.A.., St.Petersburg State Pedagogical University, PhD Chistiakova N.Ye., Institute of the Problems of Regional Economy, RAS, PhD

CONTENTS Introduction Section 1. “Objective” indicators of social inequality Section 2. The state of existing knowledge of the main social causes and correlates of social inequality 2.1. Inequality and social structure 2.2. Inequality on the labour market 2.3. Inequality in education 2.4. Inequality in the sphere of health care 2.5. Investigations of inequality in the sphere of consumption 2.6. Territorial inequality 2.7. Investigations of ethno-social inequality 2.8. Gender inequality Section 3. Social inequality and national political culture Section 4. Social inequality and the national party system Section 5. National mechanisms for mitigation of social inequality 5.1. The Role of the State in Social Protection 5.2. Non-governmental mechanisms for the amelioration of social inequality Conclusion. The main sources of uncertainty in current data and knowledge regarding the characteristics and causes of social inequality Selected Bibliography p.2 p.2 p.9

p.39 p.43 p.46

p.53

p.55

1

Introduction The desk research is devoted to the different images of social inequality in Russia. It is should be mentioned that in Soviet period it was impossible to carry out any researches on inequality because of political reasons, and corresponding statistics figures are unavailable or non-reliable. But nevertheless the inequality existed and still exists. After the beginning of perestroika the social inequality became one of the acutest topics in contemporary Russia. The limitation of the report’ size didn’t let us to present a whole spectrum of problems connected with inequality; we are presenting only description of the main problems. Besides we decide not to include in the report far historical retrospective and begin our analysis from the period of “developed socialism”. 1. “Objective” indicators of social inequality In the very beginning we would like to mark the following peculiarity of the statistical data we have. Despite the abundance of the state statistics it is very difficult to make a comparative analysis of absolute indicators during the post-communist period of development of Russia. There are two reasons for it: - the 1998 default changed the proportion of all cost parameters of the state statistics; - the constant and significant growth of prices during that period of time demanded reaccounting of all cost parameters in the prices of 1991, but this data were rarely published and, as a rule, they are not available. That’s why we consider that it is more convenient for these brief comments to use percents and use absolute figures only sometimes. Within three years after the beginning of radical economical reforms and cancellation of the state regulations of prices in 1991, a significant shift of the population to poor and low-income groups took place. The level of inequality in Russia (by the indicator of the concentration of incomes) grew two times higher than its pre-reform value. The gauge of poverty (i.e. the percentage of the population with the income lower than the minimum substitute) rapidly increased from the pre-reform value of 4% to 32-33% in 1992 (here and etc: Federal State Statistics Service of Russia, www.gks.ru) The statistics show that in rural regions the share of the population with less then...
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