The origins of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) are to be found in the changes in the British language teaching tradition dating late 1960s. Until then, situation of Language Teaching represented the major British approach to teaching English as foreign language. In situational language teaching, language was taught by practicing basic structure in meaningful situation-based activities. But just as the linguistics theory underlying audio-Lingualism was rejected in the united state in the mid-1960s, British applied linguists began to call into question the theoretical assumptions underlying Situational Language Teaching. Common to all version of Communicative Language Teaching is a theory of language teaching that stars from a communicative model of language and language use, and that seeks to translate this into design for an instructional system, for material, for teacher and learner roles and behaviors, and for classroom activities and technique. Let’s see how this is manifested at the levels of approach, design, and procedure. Approach
The Communicative Approach in language teaching starts from a theory of language as communication. The goal of language teaching is to develop communicative competence (Richards & Rodgers, 2001:159). Another linguistic theory of communication favored in CLT is Halliday’s functional account of language use. Linguistic is concerned with the description of speech acts of texts, since only through study of language in use are all the function of language and therefore all components of meaning brought into focus. Designs
These are some considerations to make designs in communicative approach: 1. Objectives
Piepho (in Richards & Rodgers, 2001:162) discusses the following levels of objectives in a communicative approach: a. an integrative and content level (language as a means of expressions) b. a linguistics and instrumental level (language as a semiotics system and an object of learning) c. an effective level of interpersonal relationship and conduct (language as a means of expressing values and judgments about oneself and others) d. a level of individual learning needs ( remedial learning based on error analysis) f. a general education level of extra- linguistics goals (language learning within the school curriculum) 2. The Syllabus
Discussion of syllabus theory and syllabus models in communicative Language teaching has been extensive. Wilkins’s original notional syllabus model was soon criticized by British applied linguistics as merely replacing one kind of list (e.g., a list of grammar items) with another (a list of notions and functions). It specified products, rather than communicative processes. There are several proposals and models for what a syllabus might look like in Communicative Language Teaching. Yalden (1983) in Richards & Rodgers (2001:164) describes the major current communicative syllabus type. Richard & Rodgers summarize a modified version of Yalden’s classification of communicative syllabus type as follow: 3. Types of Learning and Teaching Activities
The range of exercise types and activities compatible with a communicative approach is unlimited, provided that such exercises enable learners to attain the communicative objectives of the curriculum, engage learners in communication, and require the use of such communicative processes as information sharing, negotiation of meaning, and interaction. 4. Learner’s Role
Discussing about learner role, Breen and Candlin in Richards & Rodgers (2001:166) describe the learner’s role within CLT is as negotiator between the self, the learning process, and the object of learning, emerges from and interacts with the role of joint negotiator within the group and within the...