Communication Studies Notes

Topics: Scientific method, Research, Qualitative research Pages: 9 (1594 words) Published: November 1, 2012
Communication studies
Step one
Determine what you wish to investigate,
Gather the information through investigation,
Pull data from this investigation,
Data is specific and leads to the answer sought in research. Research
* A systematic process of gathering /collecting and analyzing data and information. * A systematic and organized way to find answers (10 questions). * A process by which we find answers to questions.

* Investigation to gain information.
* General information.

Characteristics of research
* Always originate with a question, problem or hypothesis * Always requires a clear articulation of a goal.
* Always follows a specific plan or procedure.
* Usually divides the principal problem into more manageable sub problems. * Always guided by the specific research problem, question or hypothesis. * Accepts certain critical assumptions which are theories of ideas about how the world works. * Always require the collection and interpretation of data in attempting to resolve the problem that inflated the research.  

Data can refer to facts, figures, numbers, text, sounds, images that are obtained from experiments, observations. Data is used as the basis for making calculations or drawing conclusions. Data can be considered the primary source of information.

 Information one is knowledge which is acquired or supplied about something or someone. Information two is the collected or gathered facts about a specific subject. Information three is the result or processing, gathering, manipulating and/or organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the receiver. Information four can include written or spoken communication, photographs, art and music. Information can also be described as data that has been meaningfully organized.  

Data is mere facts that are independent in nature and unlimited in number. Information is the result of arranging data into meaningful knowledge.  
Types of research:
* Primary.
Primary research: that which is original, that which the researcher designs carries out using surveys and/or focus groups. * Secondary.
Secondary research: this depends on accessing information that has already been researched and can be found in books, other publications and expert sources.  
Types of primary research:
* Qualitative
Qualitative research:
This is widely used, it is based on information findings taken form observation, interviewing and form tracing patterns of behavior .It helps us understand how people feel and why the feel as they do .It is in-depth in nature as one collects a significant amount of information or data, samples tend to ne smaller and the duration of research is often longer than quantitative. Two examples are: Historical research: the study of past events.

Ethnographical research: the study of current events through the collection of extensive narrative data in a naturalistic setting .Case studies are used normally.  
* Quantitative 
Quantitative research:
* This is widespread and requires the use if surveys to feed the statistical analysis. * Requires a wide sample and the researcher is not likely to have contact with the participants in the research. Two examples are:

Descriptive research : involves the collection of data in order to answer a question about current status about a subject or situation .it is  concerned with the preferences ,attitudes ,practices ,concerns or interests of some group of people . Co relational research: seeks to establish a relationship or lack thereof between two variables or to use relationships to make predictions.

This refers to the methodology used to collect data .There are various instruments and it is important to select the one best suited to the type of research you are doing. Population:
This refers to the group of individuals, items or events that the researcher wants to study .The sample is the section of the...
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