Communication Process

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2013/03/12

Topic 1

sender

message

receiver

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Initiates episode Transfers meaning using signs, symbols, codes Symbols: ◦ Represent specific ideas ◦ Generally understood





Codes:
◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ System of symbols Language is commonly used code Important for sharing of meaning Must be used correctly



Meaning:
◦ In people ◦ Must be transformed to be communicated ◦ Has to be encoded and decoded



Encoding (cognitive process):
◦ transforms ideas & feelings into symbols



Decoding (cognitive process):
◦ interprets message received into own ideas & feelin



Verbal & nonverbal codes (contradiction?)

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Intentional Selecting particular word to communicate idea Using specific gesture to communicate a feeling

Unintentional

Verbal

Nonverbal

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Messages are transmitted through channels Channel forms link between sender & receiver Most common: light & sound waves (Mass media: electronic impulses) Senses = also channels of communication (e.g. smell, touch) Often only aware of channels when cut off

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Physical means by which messages are transmitted (Mass communication: e.g. magazine/ TV set) IPC: verbal and/or nonverbal medium Verbal: oral/written Nonverbal: gestures, touch, tone of voice





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Anything (not only sound) that distorts message or interferes with sharing of meaning Distractions are NOT ALWAYS UNPLEASANT Effect: 100% sharing of meaning does not take place

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Physical noise:

◦ Experiences through the body/senses ◦ E.g. loud noise, favourite song ◦ E.g. fatigue / headache ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Thoughts, feelings, perceptions, attitudes etc E.g. sexism / racism E.g. shyness / low self-esteem E.g. ‘The One’ walking by



Psychological noise:



Semantic noise:

◦ Don’t understand language ◦ Misuse/ misunderstand word

Look at the cartoon on p. 6 of your textbook. Clearly, meaning between the drowning man and his dog Tara was not shared. Name the kind of noise that was involved, and explain your choice.

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Interprets sender’s messages Interpretation depends on frame of reference Important skills: ◦ Empathy ◦ Listening skills ◦ Accurately reading nonverbal signs



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Response to sender’s message Message in itself (verbal/nonverbal) Indication of sharing of meaning Can have effect on sender’s behaviour: ◦ Positive feedback reinforces ◦ Negative feedback discourages



Good communicator responds to feedback

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Communication – always in a context Can be unobtrusive Has (profound) effect on communication Five dimensions: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Physical (e.g. room / outdoors) Social (e.g. lecture / party) Historical (e.g. recent divorce) Psychological (e.g. moods & feelings) Cultural (e.g. values & customs)

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System = set of related things that form a whole Any relationship is a system Characteristics of all systems: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Holism Structure Function Evolution Openness Hierarchical organisation Entropy Equilibrium

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Sum of part is greater than whole (1+1>2) Interaction and influence between parts Parts can’t be understood in isolation (jigsaw puzzle) Parts are interdependent



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Arrangement of the people in the relationship at a given time Concrete (e.g. table settings) Abstract (e.g. status differences)

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Roles, duties, functions of parts May shift

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Change over time Internal changes: people, structure, function External changes: culture, economy, politics

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Interaction between system & environment Great deal of interaction – open system (healthy) Little/no interaction – closed system (system deteriorates) Healthy systems must adapt to a dynamic environment





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Systems are embedded within one another Different hierarchical levels Subsystem = system within a system...
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