Communication Is a Critical Factor in Cross-Cultural Management Issues, Particularly Those of an Interpersonal Nature, Involving Motivation, Leadership, Group Interactions and Negotiation. Culture Is Conveyed and

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Abstract
The recent growth in globalization has driven organizations to expand offshore to reduce cost and increase profitability. Consequently, the issue of intercultural management becomes an essential knowledge required by international management. More specifically, in order to effectively to mange and communicate with foreign employees, it is imperative to understand national cultures. Different theories were examined to identify the differences in different culture. Most notably, the Hofstede cultural dimension theory was examined extensively to demonstrate varies cultural norms and consequently five elements were identified; they are individualism- collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, masculinity- femininity and long-term orientation. Further, contextual communication styles and nonverbal language were also examined extensively to explain how culture has significant influenced towards our communication styles. Nonverbal language in Asian culture was further examined in relations their contextual communication styles since high contextual cultures rely heavily on nonverbal clues to demonstrate their hidden emotions and intentions. Ultimately, this report has illustrated the importance of cultural understanding during international management, and has also suggested several different methods for managers to adopt to overcome cultural barriers. Some suggestions include implementing ‘corporate trainings’ orientation program in the workplace to allow workers to discuss and understand cultural differences and other behavioral role-play practices to examine cultural conflict situations.

Communication is a critical factor in cross-cultural management issues, particularly those of an interpersonal nature, involving motivation, leadership, group interactions and negotiation. Culture is conveyed and perpetuated through communication in one form or another. Culture and communication are so intricately intertwined that they are, essentially, synonymous. By understanding this relationship, managers can move toward constructive intercultural management. The ability of a manager to effectively communicate across cultural boundaries will largely determine the success of international business transactions or the output of a culturally diverse workforce."

During the current eras, as we become more proficient with technologies, the abilities to connect and travel abroad have also become easier, and as a result these influences have driven the growth of globalisation in many countries. (Gupta & Govindarajan, 2002) Large corporations as well, are deeply affected by this impact, and many businesses have utilized this opportunity to expand overseas to source cheaper resources, and to ultimately increase businesses’ profitability. Similarly, Qantas has recently offshore their maintenance service overseas to decrease expense. (Creedy, 2012) Conventionally, the traditional American management belief of ‘one size fits all’, or standardization management style was the typical theory managers believed to be effective during international managements; managers were generally not aware of the significant effect of national culture, local managerial attitudes and employees behaviours. This realisation has perhaps been more evidenced in recent years when many marketing campaigns have failed to recognize the importance of local culture, most notably the recent embarrassing marketing campaign developed by Ford for the promotion of Ford Figo Compact car in India; the marketing ad has drawn much controversy among people claiming that the ad to be outrageously sexist especially during the heat of the recent announcement of the new anti-rape legislation in India; the ad portrayed drawings of former Italian Primer minister at the wheel with three women bound and gagged in the back of the car. (Miersma, 2013) Perhaps after such incidents have occurred, managers are currently more appreciative of the importance of understanding...
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