Communication Disorders

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  • Topic: Speech and language pathology, Aphasia, Dyslexia
  • Pages : 29 (7061 words )
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  • Published : April 21, 2012
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COMMUNICATION DISORDERS

What is Communication Disorder?
• a speech, language and hearing disorder which refers to problems in communication and in related areas such as oral motor function. • The symptoms vary depending on the particular type of communication disorder, but they generally center around problems communicating.

• Children with communication disorders have deficits in their ability to exchange information with others.

COMMUNICATION
• a multidimensional dynamic process that allows human beings to interact with their environment. Communication also includes cues such as intonation, pace of speech, and stress (emphasis), as well as nonverbal information such as gestures, facial expressions, and eye contact. • The exchange of ideas, opinions or facts between senders and receivers.

Prevalence
• The overall estimate for speech and language disorders is widely agreed to be 5% of school-aged children. This figure includes voice disorders (3%) and stuttering (1%). Estimates of hearing impairments vary considerably, with one widely accepted figure of 5% representing the portion of school-aged children with hearing levels outside the normal range. Of this number, 10% to 20% require some type of special education. Approximately one-third of students who are deaf attend residential schools. Two-thirds attend day programs in schools for students who are deaf or day classes located in regular schools. The remainder are mainstreamed into regular school programs.



LANGUAGE
• can be defined as a socially shared code or system of conventions that represents and expresses ideas through symbols and rules. All language is communication, but not all communication involves language. • It is possible to have language without speech and speech without language. • is the transformation of thoughts into meaningful symbols communicated by speech, writing, or gestures.

SPEECH
• is a particular type of language. Speech refers to language that involves the coordination of oral-neuromuscular movement to produce sounds.

• It is one means of expressing language but not the only means. • It can influence a person’s success or failure in personal/social and professional arenas.

HEARING
• hearing loss perturbs communication, often with severe consequences on the production of normal speech patterns. • the ability to perceive sound by detecting vibrations through an organ such as the ear.

Elements of Language
Form: • Phonology: the sound system of a language and the rules that cover sound combinations: in English, for instance, a short a sounds like “ahhh”; an x usually sounds like “ks”; a ph sounds like “f.”



Morphology: the structural system for words and word
construction in a language. For example, the verb run can become the participle running. One way to remember the meaning of morphology is to think about how words “morph” into other words when the meaning changes.

Elements of Language
Form: • Syntax: the system in a given language for combining words to form sentences. English sentences typically put the subject first, then the verb, then the direct object, and so on.

Content: • Semantics: the meaning of words and sentences in a language. Skill in semantics includes the ability to visualize or interpret what someone has said or what you have read and to understand it.

Elements of Language
Function: • Pragmatics: the ability to combine form and content to communicate functionally and in socially acceptable ways—for example, knowing when to say what to whom. - represents the rules governing the reasons for communicating (communicative functions) as well as the rules governing the choice of codes to be used when communicating.

Language Disorders
• Represent serious difficulties in the ability to understand or express ideas in the communication system being used. Language delay occurs when the normal rate of developmental progress is interrupted but the systematic sequence of...
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