Communication and Personality in Negotiation Paper MGT/445 University of Phoenix
Communication and Personality in Negotiation Paper
Negotiation can take place anywhere and at anytime. Negotiations can take place at home, at work, with family members, with friends, and co-workers. “Negotiation is a process by which we attempt to influence others to help us achieve our needs while at the same time taking their needs into account”. (Lewicki, Barry, & Saunders, 2007, chap. 1). In many cases when people are negotiating they are unaware of the negotiating. Some people may believe that negotiating is hard and others may think it is an easy thing to do. In this paper I will analyze the roles of communication and personality in negotiation and how they contributed or detracted to the negotiations being made. A personal experience of mine pertaining this subject will also be given. When negotiating, communication plays a crucial role because it involves plenty of communication. While negotiating two levels of communication can occur, the pragmatic level and the logical level. Both these levels are different types of communication and they both can be communication from the opposite party. When negotiating one must know what is being communicated for example, what the other party might be communicating might not be the main point, one must know what is being indirect, intended, and conveyed. As a result, one must be cautious when receiving direct pragmatic messages. “In order to avoid sending the wrong message negotiators must be aware of the potential issues of pragmatic communication”. (Lewicki, Barry, & Saunders, 2007, chap.1). Nonverbal communication consists of forms of communication that do not involve speaking or writing. There are different types of nonverbal communication are; body language, physical environment and personal attributes. A person’s body language can show an optimistic expression or a pessimistic expression. An example is if a person crosses their arms they are most likely unsure or not content, if a person has their hand on their hip is a sign of confidence. The Physical environment can send messages about territory and available space involved. Personal Attributes are messages such as; facial expressions, appearance, eye contact. These three types of nonverbal communication can have a great affect on negotiations. Communication is the key of negotiation. When communication is disrupted or distorted negotiations are unsuccessful. Listening skills are crucial in a conflict situation. Through attentive listening, a negotiator can learn what the other party has to say so that an agreement can be reached. Listening well will assist one in assessing and analyzing any situation as a whole. When dealing with negotiations an important factor is asking the proper questions. Asking the correct questions allows negotiators to obtain valuable information about the other party’s position, supporting arguments or needs (Lewicki, Saunders, & Barry, 2006). Open questions allow the listener to express her or himself without any restrictions. This type of question allows for clarification of the issue, acquiring missing information, or pressing for more information about details. Role reversal may improve communication during negotiations also. This technique involves the negotiator putting herself or himself in the shoes of the other party and, then, considering the various parts of the negotiation. This allows the negotiators to understand the other party’s position by taking an active part in arguing the issue at hand (Lewicki, Saunders, & Barry, 2006). Personality in Negotiations
The study of personality in negotiation has a variety of predominant traits such as “social value orientation, conflict management, self-efficacy and locus of control, self-monitoring, Machiavellianism, face threat sensitivity,...