Communication and Collaboration in Nursing

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1.Nurse-Patient Relationship Phases
a.Orientation (beginning)
i.Therapeutic Relationship
1.Develop trust
2.Establish goals
3.Therapeutic contract
4.Nursing diagnosis
b.Working (Middle)
i.Planning and Implementation
1.Communication skills to help client
2.Work on behavioral changes
3.Explore feelings and problems
c.Termination (End)
i.Evaluation
1.Inform client of other sources of help available
2.Evaluate therapeutic outcome
3.Evaluate nurse-patient relationship
4.Nurse may have mixed feelings (happy with result, sad to say bye) 2.Inappropriate Boundaries
a.Know and respect the boundaries
i.Nurses need to get own emotional needs met outside patient relationship ii.Under involvement vs. over involvement
iii.Attraction to patient or vice versa
iv.Accepting or giving gifts
v.Giving out home address or phone #
vi.Non-acceptance or avoidance
vii.Encourage dependency
3.Characteristics of a Helping Relationship
a.Based on trust, respect, acceptance, and honesty
i.Listen carefully
ii.Be aware of cultural differences
iii.Know your role and limitations
i.Put yourself in their shoes
ii.Confidentiality
iii.Intellectual/emotional bond that focuses on the client
iv.Maximize client’s decision making
iv.Cultural competence
b.Be non-judgemental
i.Avoid stereotypes
ii.Accept all patients as individuals
4.Levels of Communications
a.Verbal
i.All speech
b.Nonverbal – makes up 93% of communication
i.Facial expressions, posture, tone, actions
c.Congruent
i.Verbal and nonverbal communications match
d.Incongruent
i.Verbal and nonverbal do not match (confusing)
5.Communication Theory and Development
a.Begins in infancy
i.Sematic
1.Consists of crying, reddening of skin, fast breathing (decreases with maturatity) ii.Action Language
1.Reaching out, crawling, pointing (older infants)
6.Assertive Communication
a.Direct; respect self and others; encourages trust and teamwork i.Takes practice, must take risks, strong self-esteem, must be persistent and determined 7.Becoming a Better Communicator
a.Active listening
i.Communicating interest and attentive
ii.Eye contact, nodding, open posture, repeat what you hear, eye level 8.SBAR Recording
a.Prevents error; consistent
i.Situation
ii.Background
iii.Assessment
iv.Recommendation
9.Collaboration skills
a.Working jointly and sharing knowledge and authority
i.Enhance positive patient outcome
ii.Essential for teamwork
iii.Need to know the limits and boundaries of others
iv.Supportive environment
10.Factors Affecting Communication
a.Competition
i.Peer evaluations
b.Working Environment
i.Coping with difficult behavior
c.Stress
i.A destructive circle
11.Errors with Communication
a.Illegible writing
b.Dating errors
c.Inappropriate abbreviations
d.Cant understand terminology
e.Not giving enough info/ vice versa
12.Electronic communication
a.Email
i.Keep short
ii.Be professional
iii.Courteous tone
b.Cell phone
i.Avoid use around patient
ii.Pay attention to other-disregard the phone
iii.Be professional when texting
13.Principles of Leadership and Management
a.Leadership-inspire other to work towards a goal/ ability to influence the behaviors of others i.Leaders emerge/evolve into role
ii.Focused on the leader
iii.Style Theory:
1.Laissez-faire
a.Non-direct or passive
b.Group determines goals
c.Lack of involvement by the leader
2.Democratic
a.All aspects to achieve a goal are shared by the group
b.Leader provides guidance to the group
c.Leader makes finial decision based on what’s best for the group 3.Authoritarian
a.Strong control over all aspects of group
b.Give orders
c.Final decision is made by leader
b.Management-influencing employees to be as productive as humanly possible i.Managers are appointed
ii.Focused on influencing employees to be as productive as possible iii.Not all managers are good...
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