CHAPTER 9 - COMMUNICATION
After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
1. Define communication and list its four functions.
2. Describe the communication process.
3. Contrast the three common types of small-group networks.
4. Identify factors affecting the use of the grapevine.
5. Define knowledge management and explain its importance.
6. Describe common barriers to effective communication.
7. List four rules for improving cross-cultural communication. 8. Outline behaviors associated with providing effective feedback. 9. Identify the behaviors related to effective active listening.
I. FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION
A. Communication’s Four Major Functions—control, motivation, emotional expression, and information. (ppt 4) 1. Control. Communication controls member behavior in several ways. a) Employees are required to follow authority hierarchies and formal guidelines. b) Informal communication also controls behavior.
(1) When work groups tease or harass a member who produces too much, they are informally communicating with, and controlling, the member’s behavior. 2. Motivation. Communication fosters motivation by clarifying for employees what is to be done, how well they are doing, and what can be done to improve performance. a) The formation of specific goals, feedback on progress toward the goals, and reinforcement of desired behavior all stimulate motivation and require communication. 3. Emotional expression. For many employees, their work group is a primary source for social interaction. a) Communication within the group is a fundamental mechanism by which members show their frustrations and feelings of satisfaction. b) Communication provides an avenue for expression of emotions and fulfillment of social needs. 4. Information. The final function that communication performs is related to its role in facilitating decision making. a) It provides the needed information.
5. None of these four functions should be seen as more important than the others.
II. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
A. The Model (ppt 5)
1. A purpose, expressed as a message to be conveyed, is needed to begin the process. 2. It passes between a source (the sender) and a receiver.
3. The message is encoded (converted to a symbolic form).
4. It is passed by way of some medium (channel) to the receiver. 5. The receiver retranslates (decodes) the message initiated by the sender. 6. The result is a transference of meaning from one person to another. 7. See Exhibit 9-1, the communication process.
a) The sender encodes the message.
b) The message is the actual physical product from the source encoding. c) The channel is the medium through which the message travels. (ppt 6) (1) Formal channels are established by the organization and transmit messages that are related to the professional activities of members. (2) Other forms of messages, such as personal or social, follow the informal channels in the organization. d) The receiver is the object to whom the message is directed. e) Before the message can be received, the symbols in it must be translated into a form that can be understood by the receiver—decoding of the message. f) The final link is a feedback loop—the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages as originally intended.
III. DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATION
A. Direction (ppt 7)
1. Communication can flow vertically or laterally.
2. The vertical dimension can be further divided into downward and upward directions.
1. Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level. a) Managers communicating with subordinates.
2. Used by group leaders and managers to assign goals, provide job instructions, and inform underlings of policies and procedures, point out problems that need attention, and offer feedback about performance. 3. Not only oral or face-to-face; letters, e-mails, and so on, sent to...
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