Communication

Topics: Communication, Culture, Media studies Pages: 7 (1401 words) Published: January 8, 2014
LESSON 1. MASS COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE

PRELIM Period, HAU

What is Mass Communication?
“Does a fish know it’s wet?” influential cultural and media critic Marshall McLuhan would often ask. The answer, he would say, is “No.” The fish’s existence is so dominated by water that only when water is absent is the fish aware of its condition. So is it with people and mass media. The media so fully saturate our everyday lives that we are often unconscious of their presence, not to mention their influence.

Media : a. informs us

b. entertain us

g. insult our intelligence
i. help define us

c. delight us

d. annoy us

e. move our emotions

f. challenge our intellects

h. often reduce us to mere commodities for sale to the highest bidder j. shape our realities

A fundamental theme of this course is that media do none of these alone. They do it with us as well as to us through mass communication, and they do it as a central cultural force in our society. COMMUNICATION DEFINED

the transmission of a message from a source to a receiver
THE BASIC FLOW
OF
COMMUNICATION

Sender
(Ideas)

Message
(encoded)

Transmission
(signals)

Recipient
(decodes)

Receiver
(meaning)

FEEDBACK

ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

SENDER – speaker or the communicator/encoder of a message
MESSAGE – the idea being transmitted by the sender to the listener CHANNEL – medium or vehicle through which the message is sent RECEIVER – target of the communication because s/he has to decode the message being sent to him/her FEEDBACK – reaction given by the listener to the sender of the message and it is what completes the communication process

Models of Communication:
A. Linear Model (one-way communication)
1. Shannon’s Model – by Claude Shannon (1948); this model is considered the granddaddy of many later communication models
Source

Encode

Decode

Receiver

Noise
*Source – refers to a person/sender using a transmitter
Noise – refers to any signal that may disrupt or interfere with the message being carried 2. Laswell’s Model – Acc. to Mr. Harold Lasswell, a convenient way to describe communication is to answer these questions:

1) Who?
2) Says what?
3) Through which channel?
4) To whom?
5) With what effect?
[1]

B. Interactive (interaction between the sender and receiver is already observed) Schramm’s Model (1954) – emphasized that both the sender and the receiver take turns playing the role of the encoder and the decoder when it comes to communication

Encoder/
Interpreter/
Decoder

Message

Decoder/
Interpreter/
Encoder

Message
*Throwback of interactive model : Communicators can both send and receive messages simultaneously but fails to show how dynamic communication is, how it changes over time. Fig 1.1 SCHRAMM’s MODEL OF MASS COMMUNICATION

Inferential feedback – indirect feedback
Television executives, for example, must wait a day, at the very minimum, and sometimes a week or a month, to discover the ratings for new programs. Even then, the ratings measure only how many sets are tuned in, not whether people liked or disliked the programs. As a result, these executives can only infer what they must do to improve programming; hence, the term inferential feedback. Mass communicators are also subject to additional feedback, usually in the form of criticism in other media, such as television critic writing a column in a newspaper. WHAT IS CULTURE?

It is the learned behavior of members of a given social group. FUNCTIONS and EFFECTS OF CULTURE:
1. Limiting and Liberating Effects
= A culture’s learned traditions and values can be seen as patterned, repetitive ways of thinking, feeling, and acting = Culture limits our options an provides useful guidelines for behavior. = DOMINANT or MAINSTREAM culture

2. Defining, Differentiating, Dividing, and Uniting Effects
= Have you ever made the mistake of calling a dolphin, porpoise, or even a whale a fish? Maybe you have...
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